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Wintersemester 2011/2012

Instructions[Bearbeiten]

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Text I[Bearbeiten]

The original can be found here: Illuminatenorden

1.[Bearbeiten]

Gründung

Der Professor für Kirchenrecht und praktische Philosophie an der Universität Ingolstadt, Adam Weishaupt (1748–1830), gründete am 1. Mai 1776 mit zwei seiner Studenten den Bund der Perfektibilisten (von lateinisch perfectibilis: zur Vervollkommnung befähigt). Als Symbol des Bundes wählte Weishaupt die Eule der Minerva, der römischen Göttin der Weisheit. Hintergrund war das intellektuelle Klima an der Universität, das fast vollständig von ehemaligen Jesuiten beherrscht wurde, deren Orden 1773 aufgehoben worden war. Der erst achtundzwanzigjährige Weishaupt war der einzige Professor in Ingolstadt ohne jesuitische Vergangenheit und dementsprechend isoliert im Lehrkörper, was auch an seiner Begeisterung für die Ideen der Aufklärung lag. Um seinen Schülern Schutz vor jesuitischen Intrigen zu bieten, die er allerorten vermutete, vor allem aber, um ihnen Zugang zu zeitgenössischer kirchenkritischer Literatur zu gewähren, gründete er den Geheimen Weisheitsbund, der in seiner Anfangszeit nicht mehr als ein antiklerikaler Lesezirkel von höchstens zwanzig Mitgliedern war. Darüber hinaus sah Weishaupt im Orden der Gold- und Rosenkreuzer, einem mystisch-spiritualistischen Orden innerhalb der Freimaurerei, ein immer stärker werdendes Übel, das es zu bekämpfen galt. Weishaupt berichtete über den Anlass der Gründung seiner Gesellschaft in seiner Schrift Pythagoras oder Betrachtungen über die geheime Welt- und Regierungskunst:

  • a. K.H.
  • b. L.B.

Foundation

On May 1, 1776, Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), the professor of canon law and practical philosophy at the University of Ingolstadt, founded the Bund der Perfektibilisten (engl.: the association of perfectibilists) with two of his students. Weishaupt chose the Minerva's Owl, the roman Goddess of wisdom, as a symbol for the association. This was due to the intellectual climate at the university, which was almost completely ruled by former Jesuits, whose order was abolished in 1773. The only 28 year-old Adam Weishaupt was the only professor in Ingolstadt without a Jesuit past and consequently isolated amongst the academic staff, which was also due to his enthusiasm for the ideas of the Enlightment. In order to protect his students from jesuit intrigues, which he believed to be everywhere around him, but especially to grant them access to critical literature on the church, he founded a group called Geheimer Weisheitsbund (engl.: the secret group of wisdom). In the beginning the group was only composed of twenty members and was not more than an anticlerical book discussion group. Beyond that, Weishaupt saw the Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross, an order amongst the Freemasons, as an evil that needed to be combated. Weishaupt wrote about the formation of his group in his book Pythagoras, or Considerations on the Secret Art of Diplomacy and Government:

Foundation

On May 1, 1776, Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), the professor of canon law and practical philosophy at the University of Ingolstadt, founded the Bund der Perfektibilisten (engl.: the association of perfectibilists) with two of his students. Weishaupt chose the Minerva's Owl, the roman Goddess of wisdom, as a symbol for the association. The background of all was the intellectual climate at the university, which was almost completely ruled by former Jesuits, whose order was abolished in 1773. Adam Weishaupt, only 28 years old, was the only professor in Ingolstadt without a Jesuit past and consequently isolated amongst the academic staff, which was also because of his enthusiasm for the ideas of the Enlightment. In order to give his students access to critical literature on the church and to protect them from Jesuit intrigues, which he believed to be everywhere around him, he founded a group called “Geheimer Weisheitsbund” (engl.: the secret group of wisdom). In the beginning, the group was only composed of twenty members and was not more than an anticlerical book discussion group. Beyond that, Weishaupt saw a growing evil that needed to be combated: the Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross, a mystical and spiritualistic order amongst the Freemasons. Weishaupt wrote about the formation of his group in his book Pythagoras, or Considerations on the Secret Art of Diplomacy and Government: - Because of (Due to only for uncontrollable natural catastrophes and technical problems) - Adam Weishaupt, only 28 years old, (age with adverb always post positioned) - Sentence structure confusing (In order to protect…) - Give access (grant access too bureaucratic) - To put in ‘mystical’ and ‘spiritualistic’ another sentence structure is better

2.[Bearbeiten]

„Zwei Umstände aber gaben vollends Ausschlag. Zu eben dieser Zeit 1776 hatte ein Offizier, Namens Ecker, in Burghausen eine Loge errichtet, welche auf Alchemie ging und sich gewaltig zu verbreiten anfing. Ein Mitglied dieser Loge kam nach Ingolstadt, um dort zu werben und die Fähigsten unter den Studierenden auszuheben. Seine Auswahl fiel zum Unglück gerade auf diejenigen, auf welche auch ich mein Auge geworfen hatte. Der Gedanke, so hoffnungsvolle Jünglinge auf diese Art verloren zu haben, sich auch überdies mit der verderblichen Seuche, mit dem Hang zur Goldmacherei und ähnlichen Torheiten angesteckt zu sehen, war für mich quälend und unterträglich. Ich ging darüber mit einem jungen Mann, auf welchen ich das meiste Vertrauen gesetzt hatte, zu Rate. Dieser ermunterte mich, meinen Einfluß auf die Studierenden zu benutzen und diesem Unwesen durch ein wirksames Gegenmittel, durch Errichtung einer Gesellschaft, so viel als möglich zu steuern […].“

Einen ersten Aufschwung nahm der Orden, als er 1778 von Weishaupts ehemaligem Schüler, dem späteren Regierungspräsidenten der Pfalz Franz Xaver von Zwack reorganisiert wurde. Weishaupt schlug als neuen Namen Bienenorden vor, weil ihm vorschwebte, dass die Mitglieder unter der Leitung einer Bienenkönigin den Nektar der Weisheit sammeln sollten, doch entschied man sich für Bund der Illuminaten und schließlich Illuminatenorden. Aus dem Weisheitsbund wurde nun ein geheimer Orden, der die jesuitischen Spuren seines organisatorischen Vorbilds nicht verleugnen konnte.

  • a.J.G.
  • b.S.F.S.


"However two circumstances tipped the scale. At that time in 1776 an officer named Eckerhad built a lodge in Burghausen, which was going for alchemy and was started to spread immensely/enormously. One member of the lodge came to Ingolstadt to advertise their newly found order, trying to enlist the most eligible students of the university. To my misfortune of all students he chose the ones who had caught my eye as well. The thought of having lost these promising young fellows in such a manner and seeing them getting infected by the ruinous plagues, including among similar follies the affinity to produce gold through alchemy, felt like unbearable torture. I discussed the matter with the one young men I had put all my confidence in. He encouraged me to use my influence on the students as much as possible and to counter that nuisance with a powerous antidote by creating a society[...]."

The order had a first uprising when it was reorganized by the former student of Weishaupt, Franz Xaver von Zwack, who was later to be the first district president of the Pfalz in 1778. Weishaupt suggested to pick "Bienenorden" (German for Bee-order) as the new name because he imagined the members to be led by a queen bee, collecting the nectar of wisdom. However it was descided that the new name was to be "Bund der Illuminaten" and finally "Illuminatenorden". The federation of wisdom became a secret order and by then could no longer hide its jesuit role model.

Second version:

"However, two events tipped the scale. Exactly at this time, in 1776, an officer named Eckerhad founded a lodge in Burghausen, which specialized itself in alchemy and started to spread rapidly. One member of the lodge came to Ingolstadt to advertise their newly founded order and to find the most competent students of the university. Unfortunatley, he chose exactly those students who had caught my eye as well. The thought of having lost these promising young fellows in such a manner and seeing them getting infected by the ruinous plagues, including such follies as the affinity to produce gold through alchemy, felt like unbearable torture. I discussed the matter with a young man in whom I had put all my confidence. He encouraged me to use my influence on the students as much as possible and to counter this threat with a powerful antidote by creating a society[...]."

The order had a first upswing when it was reorganized by the former student of Weishaupt, Franz Xaver von Zwack, in 1778. Von Zwack later became the first district president of the Pfalz. Weishaupt suggested to pick "Bienenorden" (German for Bee-order) as the new name because he imagined the members as led by a queen bee, collecting the nectar of wisdom. However, it was decided that the new name should be "Bund der Illuminaten" and finally "Illuminatenorden". The federation of wisdom became a secret order and could no longer hide the Jesuit origin of its organizational structure.

Comments: -However,

-"events" ->word choice

-"Exactly at this time, in 1776," -(unidiomatic use)

-"founded" ->vocabulary ("built" is more material, "found" is abstract)

-"specialized in alechmy" ->vocabulary

-"started" ->"was started": wrong mood
-"spread rapidly" ->vocabulary
-"founded" -> "found" is the wrong participle

-"trying": unnecessary addition

-"find", "competent" ->word choice

-"unfortunately" ->"to my misfortune" isn't idiomatic

-"of all"->wrong construction

-"including among" -wrong construction
-"the one young men..."->wrong number and article
-"threat"- "nuisance" ->word choice
-"powerous" doesn't exist
-"upswing"- "uprising" ->word choice
-word order, change of meaning ("in 1778", the order was reorganized)
-"as" instead of "to be" ->style
-"However ,"
-"should be" ->style
-last sentence didn't stick to original meaning

3.[Bearbeiten]

Kurze Blüte

Eine weitere Umorganisation erfolgte 1780 nach dem Beitritt des niedersächsischen Adligen Adolph Freiherr Knigge. Dieser gab dem Orden, der zu dieser Zeit nach Weishaupts eigenem Eingeständnis „eigentlich noch gar nicht, sondern nur in seinem Kopfe“ existierte, 1782 eine den Freimaurerlogen ähnliche Struktur, über der ein so genannter Areopag mit Weishaupt, Knigge, und anderen die Führung des Ordens innehatte. Mit dieser neuen Organisation, die unten näher erläutert wird, gelang es den Illuminaten, zahlreiche Freimaurer anzuwerben und ganze Logen zu unterwandern.

Hintergrund war die Krise, in die die deutsche Freimaurerei in ihren Hochgraden nach 1776 mit dem Zusammenbruch der Strikten Observanz geraten war. Mit dieser eher unpolitisch-romantisierenden Bewegung, die behauptete, in der Nachfolge des 1312 aufgehobenen Templerordens zu stehen, war es Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau gelungen, die deutschen Logen unter seiner Führung anzuwerben. Er hatte jahrelang behauptet, er stünde in Kontakt mit „Unbekannten Oberen“, die ihn in das tiefste Geheimnis der Freimaurerei eingeweiht hätten. Als sich nach von Hunds Tod 1776 aber keinerlei „Geheime Obere“ meldeten, war die Ratlosigkeit in den Logen groß. Auf dem großen Freimaurer-Konvent der Strikten Observanz, der vom 16. Juli bis 1. September 1782 in Wilhelmsbad tagte, konnten Knigge und der zweite illuminatische Vertreter, Franz Dietrich von Ditfurth, ein ausgesprochener Radikalaufklärer, die Meinungsführerschaft für ihren Orden gewinnen. Das Templersystem wurde aufgegeben, der Orden der Gold- und Rosenkreuzer, der sich seinerseits bemühte, die Strikte Observanz zu beerben, blieb in der Minderheit. Es gelang den beiden Illuminaten sogar, mit Johann Christoph Bode einen der führenden Vertreter der Strikten Observanz zu gewinnen.

  • a.
  • b. EO

Another reorganisation took place in 1780 after the lower saxon noble Adolph Freiherr Knigge joined the illuminati. In 1782 he gave a structure similar to the Freemason lodges to the order that had until that point, as Weishaupt himself conceded, not actually exist anywhere but in Weishaupt's head. Leadership of the order was given to a so-called Areopagus that consisted of Weishaupt, Knigge and others.

This new organisation (that will be explained in detail further below) allowed the Illuminati to recruit numerous Freemasons and ifiltrate entire lodges against the backdrop of a crisis that the higher grades of the German Freemasonry were going through after the collapse of the Order of Strict Observance in 1776. This relatively apolitical and romanticising movement claimed succession from the Knights Templars and had enabled Karl Gotthelf von Hund to get the German lodges under his leadership. For years he had been claiming to be in contact with "Unknown Superiors" who had let him in on the deepest secret of Freemasonry. However, after no such "Secret Superiors" contacted the lodges after Hund's death in 1776, the lodge members were perplexed. At the great Freemasons' Convent of the Strict Observance, that was held in Wilhelmsbad from Juli 16th to Sptember 1st 1782, Knigge and Franz Dietrich von Ditfurth, the second Illuminati representative and a most radical proponent of the Enlightenment, could claim the oppinion leadership for their order. The templar system was given up and the Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross, itself trying to succeed the Order of Strict Observance, remained in the minority. The two Illuminati even succeeded in winning over Johann Christoph Bode, one of the leading representatives of the Strict Observance.

-lower saxon- capital letters ("German woman") -aristocrat instead of "noble", because noble is an adjective -"exist" needs to be changed in "existed", because of past perfect -"gave a structure to" sounds too german, maybe on could simply use to structure as a main verb -instead of "Weihaupt's head": "in his mind" -"the" in front of "leadership" -"n" is missing- "infiltrate" - no "the" in front of German Freemasonry -observance: in the German sentence "Mit dieser eher unpolitischen..." it seems that Karl Gotthelf von Hund was part of the movement from the beginning, but in the English sentence it seems that the movement and Karl Gotthelf are two different things and that he eventually profited from it without contributing - time shift "claimed....and had enabled" is not neccessary - "However, after no such...past perfect is needed, because the not contacting happens before being perplexed - opinion written with only on p - no th needed with the date (reference: wikipedia (calender dates) - "claim leadership": Führung beanspruchen, but in the original version it says "gewinnen" (meaning difference), "take the lead" would be a better choice - maybe one could use "manage to" instead of "succeed" in the last sentence to avoid confusion, because succeed is used in two very different meanings

4.[Bearbeiten]

Krise und Verbot

In der Folge wuchs die Mitgliederzahl rasch an, doch dieser Erfolg war gleichzeitig der Anfang vom Ende: Knigge sah seine Leistungen in der Verbreitung des Ordens nicht honoriert und drohte in Briefen, er werde dessen Geheimnisse an Jesuiten und Rosenkreuzer verraten. Damit verstärkte er aber nur das Misstrauen Weishaupts, dem es erhebliche Sorgen bereitete, dass mit den Prinzen Karl von Hessen und Ferdinand von Braunschweig sowie den Herzögen Ernst von Sachsen-Gotha und Carl August von Sachsen-Weimar Vertreter der absolutistischen Obrigkeit von Knigge und dem ebenfalls sehr umtriebigen Bode in den Orden gebracht worden waren. Dieses Misstrauen war nicht unberechtigt, denn Carl August und sein Geheimrat Goethe waren nur beigetreten, um den Orden auszuforschen. test


--- Everyone should translate this segment ---

Crisis and ban/prohibition

As a result membership figures increased, which was a success but also the beginning of the end. Adolf Knigge did not feel that his accomplishments were appreciated and thus threatened to pass their secrets on to the Jesuits and Rosicrucians. This led Weishaupt to become even more suspicious, who was substantially bothered by the fact, that with prince Charles of hesse and Ferdinand of Brunswick as well as the dukes Ernest representatives of the absolutist magistracy were brought to the order by Knigge and the likewise bustling Bode. This distrust was not unjustified, since Carl Augsust and his privy council Goethe had only joined to spy out the Order.

5.[Bearbeiten]

In der Folge spitzte sich der Dissens zwischen Weishaupt und Knigge derart zu, dass der Orden zu zerbrechen drohte. Im Februar 1784 wurde daher ein „Congress“ genanntes Schiedsgericht in Weimar einberufen. Für Knigge überraschend urteilte der Congress, an dem unter anderem auch Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder und Herzog Ernst von Sachsen-Gotha beteiligt waren, es müsse ein gänzlich neuer Areopag gebildet werden. Es sollten beide führenden Persönlichkeiten des Ordens ihre Machtpositionen aufgeben. Dies schien ein tragbarer Kompromiss zu sein. Da aber absehbar war, dass der Ordensgründer auch ohne formalen Vorsitz im Areopag weiterhin einflussreich bleiben würde, bedeutete es eine klare Niederlage für Knigge. Es wurde Stillschweigen und Rückgabe aller Papiere vereinbart und am 1. Juli 1784 verließ Knigge den Illuminatenorden. Er wandte sich in der Folgezeit von der „Mode-Thorheit“ ab, die Welt durch geheime Gesellschaften verbessern zu wollen. Weishaupt seinerseits gab die Leitung des Ordens an Johann Martin Graf zu Stolberg-Roßla ab.

  • a. R.H.
  • b. S.F.

As a result, the disagreement between Weishaupt and Knigge intensified so much that it threatened the Order to break apart. Therefore an arbitral tribunal called “Congress“ was convened in Weimar in February 1784. It came as a surprise for Knigge that the „Congress“, in which among others Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder and Duke Ernst of Saxe-Gotha participated, judged that a completely new Areopagus should be created. Both heads of the Order were supposed to resign from there positions of power. This seemed to be an acceptable compromise. It meant an obvious defeat for Knigge, as the founder of the order would probably still have the same influence even without the formal chairmanship of the Aeropagus. Silence and the return of all papers was agreed on and Knigge left the Illuminati on the first of July 1784. From this point on he turned away from the fashionable foolishness of trying to improve the world with secret societies. Weishaupt on his part handed over the leadership of the Order to Johann Martin Count of Stolberg-Roßla.

6.[Bearbeiten]

Inmitten der internen Streitereien hatten Geheimbünde die Aufmerksamkeit der bayerischen Obrigkeit auf sich gezogen. Ihr waren die Ziele von aufklärerisch gesinnten Geheimorden suspekt, richteten sie sich doch darauf, die überkommene Ordnung zu verändern, ja durch Unterwanderung der öffentlichen Ämter einen "Vernunftstaat" zu errichten.[2] Konsequent wurden am 22. Juni 1784 alle „Communitäten, Gesellschaften und Verbindungen“ durch den bayerischen Kurfürsten Karl Theodor verboten, die ohne seine „landesherrliche Bestätigung“ gegründet worden waren. Am 2. März 1785 folgte auf Druck von Pater Frank, Kanzler Freiherr von Kreittmayr, dem Rosenkreuzer Freiherr von Törring und anderen Hofleuten ein weiteres Edikt, das Illuminaten und Freimaurer diesmal beim Namen nannte und als landesverräterisch und religionsfeindlich verbot. Es wurden bei Hausdurchsuchungen verschiedene Papiere des Ordens beschlagnahmt, die weitere Indizien für seine radikalen Ziele erbrachten. Papiere, die bei einem verstorbenen Kurier gefunden wurden, boten Aufschluss über die Namen einiger Mitglieder. Im selben Jahr erklärte auch Papst Pius VI. in zwei Briefen (vom 18. Juni und 12. November) an den Bischof von Freising die Mitgliedschaft im Orden als unvereinbar mit dem katholischen Glauben.

  • a. V.S.
  • b. C.B.

While they had been quarrelling, secret societies had attracted the attention of the Bavarian authorities. They deemed the objectives of progressive-minded (hyphen) secret societies suspicious because they concentrated on changing the traditional order and on establishing a "rational state" (quotation marks) by infiltrating the public offices. On June 22, 1784,(American Date) the Bavarian electoral Prince Charles Theodore consequently prohibited any "communities, societies and associations", which had been founded without his approval as a sovereign ruler. With the insistence of Father Frank, the chancellor Baron of Krettmayr, the Rosicrucian Baron of Törring and other people at court, another edict was released on March 2,1785, (American Date) which mentioned the Illuminati and the Freemasons by name this time (strange word choice). It banned them for reason of treason and heresy. During house searches various documents of the order that showed further circumstantial evidence for their radical objectives were confiscated. Documents carried by a deceased courier (strange picture) gave some indication of the names of several members. In the same year, Pope Pius VI declared the (delete) membership in the (preposition) order to be incompatible with the Catholic (Capitalization) faith in two letters (from the 18th of June and the 12th of November) to the bishop of Freising. (revision, American Date)

While members of societies were quarrelling amongst themselves, secret societies had attracted the attention of the Bavarian authorities. They deemed the objectives of progressive-minded secret societies suspicious because they concentrated on changing the traditional order and on establishing a "rational state" by infiltrating the public offices. On June 22, 1784, the Bavarian electoral Prince Charles Theodore consequently prohibited any "communities, societies and associations", which had been founded without his approval as a sovereign ruler. With the insistence of Father Frank, the chancellor Baron of Krettmayr, the Rosicrucian Baron of Törring and other people at court, another edict was released on March 2, 1785, which explicitely mentioned Illuminati's and Freemason's names. It banned them for reason of treason and heresy. During house searches various documents of the order that showed further circumstantial evidence for their radical objectives were confiscated. Documents which were found with a deceased courier gave away information about names of several members. In two letters to the bishop of Freising, sent within the same year (June 18 and November 12), Pope Pius VI declared membership of the order to be incompatible with the Catholic faith.

7.[Bearbeiten]

Die sich an die Verbote von 1784/85 anschließenden Verfolgungen der Ordensmitglieder hielten sich im Rahmen. Es kam zu Hausdurchsuchungen und Konfiskationen; einige Hofräte und Offiziere verloren ihre Anstellung, einige Ordensmitglieder wurden des Landes verwiesen, doch eingesperrt wurde keiner.[3] Weishaupt selbst, von dem man gar nicht wusste, dass er der Gründer des Ordens war, wurde verdächtigt, floh aber, als er den katholischen Glauben bekennen sollte, zuerst in die Freie Reichsstadt Regensburg, 1787 dann weiter nach Gotha, wo ihm Herzog Ernst eine Sinekure als Hofrat beschaffte. Im April 1785 hatte Graf Stolberg-Roßla den Orden offiziell für suspendiert – also für einstweilig aufgehoben – erklärt. Diese Tatsache nutzte Bode dazu, den Bund weiter am Leben zu erhalten[4]. Er versuchte mit der Weimarer Minervalkirche und dem Orden der unsichtbaren Freunde Nachfolgeorganisationen ins Leben zu rufen, musste aber in dem scharf anti-illuminatischen Klima der Revolutionsjahre diese Bemühungen 1790 einstellen. In der Forschung wird allgemein angenommen, dass die Zerschlagung des Illuminatenordens erfolgreich war. Am 16. August 1787 folgte ein drittes, noch schärferes Verbotsedikt, das die Rekrutierung von Mitgliedern für Freimaurer und Illuminaten gar unter Todesstrafe stellte. Es hielten sich also in Kreisen der Obrigkeit Gerüchte um ein Fortbestehen der Illuminati.

  • a.K.M.
  • b.T.F.

The persecutions of the members of the order following the prohibitions of 1784/85 were actually quite moderate. There were home inspections and confiscations; some privy councillors and officers lost their positions; some members of the order were forced to leave the country, but no one was imprisoned. Weishaupt, who was not known as the founder of the order, was suspected and when he had to confess to Catholicism he fled to the free imperial city of Regensburg, then continued his flight to Gotha in 1787 where Duke Ernst provided him with a sinecure as privy councillor. In April 1785 Earl Stolberg-Roßla officially proclaimed the order as suspended, i.e. the order was temporarily abolished. Bode used this suspension to keep the order going. He tried to create successive organisations, the Minervalchurch of Weimar and the "order of the invisible friends", but was forced to stall his efforts in 1790 because of the harsh anti-illuminati climate of the revolutionary years. Scholars widely assume the break-up of the Illuminati order as having been successful. On August 16,1787, an even stricter edict of prohibition followed which placed the recruiting of Freemasons and Illuminati members under the death penalty. Obviously, there were still rumours circulating among the ruling authorities about an on-going existence of the Illuminati.

l.1: "were rather moderate" instead of "were actually quite moderate" -> coll.

l.1/2: "Houses were searched and property was confiscated" -> "There were" sounds colloquial and the term "home inspections" has a different meaning (check if a house is alright. A shift from active to passive leads to a more natural sounding phrase.

l.2: "court counselors" instead of "privy councillors"

l.2-l.4: "Weishaupt, who was not known to be the founder of the order, was suspected of being a member himself. When he was supposed to confess to Catholicism, however, he first fled to the Free Imperial City of Regensburg. Then, in 1787, he fled to Gotha, where Duke Ernst provided him with a sinecure as court counselor." -> word choice, "himself" was left out, splitting the sentence makes it more comprehensible

8.[Bearbeiten]

Die Veröffentlichungen lösten eine erste Illuminatenhysterie aus, überall witterte man nun die Umtriebe des radikalaufklärerischen Geheimbunds. Eine zweite, deutlich heftigere Welle dieser Hysterie setzte nach der Französischen Revolution ein, als die Furcht vor den Jakobinern mit der älteren vor den Illuminaten zu einer einzigen Angstphantasie verschmolz. In dieser Stimmung ließ der bayerische Staatsminister Montgelas – wiewohl selber ehemaliger Illuminat – gleich bei seinem Regierungsantritt 1799 und erneut 1804 alle geheimen Gesellschaften verbieten. Wie stark die deutsche Öffentlichkeit in den Jahren um die Französische Revolution von mysteriös-unheimlichen Geheim- und Initiationsgesellschaften fasziniert war, lässt sich an diversen literarischen Werken der Zeit ablesen, von Schillers Der Geisterseher (1787/89) über Jean Pauls Die unsichtbare Loge (1793) bis zu Goethes Der Groß-Cophta (1792) und der geheimnisvollen Turmgesellschaft in Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1796).

Heute erinnert in Ingolstadt nur noch eine Gedenktafel an dem Gebäude, in dem sich der Versammlungssaal der Illuminaten befand, an den Orden. Das Gebäude befindet sich in der Theresienstraße 23 (früher Am Weinmarkt 298[5]) in der heutigen Fußgängerzone der Stadt.

  • a. P.E.
  • b. M.M.

The publications led to the (in German use of indirect article and in English use of direct article; might think of using the same, in this case "a") first hysteria about the Illuminati: the schemings (wrong word: activities) of this radically enlightening secret society were suspected everywhere. The second (same here : A second...), much stronger wave of hysteria began after the French Revolution, when the fear of the Jacobines merged with the older fear of the Illuminati to one great imagined fear (3 times "fear" is used in one sentence. Might think of changing the sentence or use different descriptions of "fear"). In this atmosphere of fear ( the fourth time "fear" is used, change this sentence. Maybe: Led by this atmosphere... or this atmosphere caused...) Montgelas, the Bavarian minister of state, forbade all secret societies after his accession to power (wrong word. accession to power = Machtübernahme --> not the case here, accession to post = Amtsantritt) in 1799 and again in 1804 even though he was a former member of the Illuminati himself (rewrite the whole sentence, sounds strange. Example: Led by this atmosphere the Bavarian minister of state, Monteglas, a former member of the Illuminati himself, forbade...). The extent of the German public’s fascination with (wrong word, use "of") mysterious and scary (better : eerie) secret orders and (such as) initiation societies can be seen when looking at various literary works of the time period e.g. “The Ghost- Seer” by Schiller (1787 to 1789), “The Invisible Lodge” by Jean Paul (1793) and the works of Goethe such as ” Der Groß-Cophta “ (“The Grand Kofta”) (1792) or (and) the mysterious Tower Society in “Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship” (1796).

Today only a plaque on the house in Ingolstadt, where the Illuminati held their meetings, commemorates the order. The building is (maybe add "located") at Theresienstraße 23 (formerly Am Weinmarkt 298) which (put "today" here) is in the city’s pedestrian zone today.

9.[Bearbeiten]

Ziele

Der Illuminatenorden war ganz dem Weltbild der Aufklärung verpflichtet. Ziel war die Verbesserung und Vervollkommnung der Welt und die Verbesserung und Vervollkommnung seiner Mitglieder (daher auch der alte Name Perfectibilisten). Weishaupt schrieb 1782 in seiner Rede an die neu aufzunehmenden Illuminatos dirigentes: „Wer also allgemeine Freyheit einführen will, der verbreite allgemeine Aufklärung: aber Aufklärung heißt nicht Wort- sondern Sachkenntniß, ist nicht Kenntniß von abstracten, speculativen, theoretischen Kenntnissen, die den Geist aufblasen, aber das Herz um nichts bessern.“

Mittel, die Freiheit zu erlangen, war für Weishaupt also vor allem die Bildung, und zwar nicht nur das oftmals nur äußerliche Vermitteln von Wissen, sondern in erster Linie die Bildung des Herzens, die Sittlichkeit. Diese sollte den Einzelnen befähigen, sich selbst zu beherrschen, wodurch andere Formen der Beherrschung, namentlich der „Despotismus“ der absolutistischen Fürsten, aber auch der geistige Despotismus, den die katholische Kirche ausübe, überflüssig würden. Das „Sittenregiment“ sei also Voraussetzung und Weg zu einer freien und gleichen Gesellschaft ohne Fürsten und ohne Kirche – eine libertäre Utopie, die der des Anarchismus recht nahe kommt.

  • a. J.S.
  • b. M.S.


Goals

The order of the Illuminati was committed to the world view of the Enlightenment. The aim of the order was to improve and to perfect the world as well as themselves (this is also why they were once called 'perfectibilists'). In Weishaupt's speech to the new Illuminatos dirigentes in 1782, he wrote: 'So whoever wants to establish global freedom has to distribute global Enlightenment: but Enlightenment is not the knowledge of words, but of the subject, it is not the knowledge of abstract, speculative and theoretical information which make you feel superior but leave the heart unimproved'.

So, according to Weishaupt, education was a key factor for gaining freedom, but not the often superficial passing on of knowledge, but primarily the education of the heart, of morality. People should be able to control themselves in order to make other forms of control redundant – namely the 'despotism' of the absolutist rulers, and also the spiritual despotism as practiced by the catholic church. According to Weishaupt, the 'rule of morality' was the condition and the way to a free and equal society without rulers and the church - a kind of libertarian utopia that closely resembles anarchy.


Correction:

Goals

The order of the Illuminati was fully committed to the world view of the Enlightenment. The aim of the order was to improve and to perfect the world as well as its members (this is also why they were once called 'perfectibilists'). In 1782 Weishaupt wrote in his speech to the Illuminatos dirigentes, who should soon be included: 'So whoever wants to establish global freedom has to distribute global Enlightenment: but Enlightenment is not the knowledge of words, but of the subject, it is not the knowledge of abstract, speculative and theoretical knowledge which makes you feel intellectual superior but does not improve your heart at all'.

So, according to Weishaupt, education was a key factor for gaining freedom. For him, education was not only the often superficial passing on of knowledge, but primarily the education of the heart, namely morality. People should be able to control themselves in order to make other forms of control redundant – by name the 'despotism' of the absolutist rulers, and also the spiritual despotism as practiced by the Catholic Church. According to Weishaupt, the 'rule of morality' was the condition and the way to a free and equal society without rulers and without the church - a kind of libertarian utopia that closely resembles the utopia of anarchy.


Comments:

• fully committed → emphasis on “ganz”

• as well as its members → unclear connection of subject and object

• in 1782 Weishaupt wrote in his speech to the Illuminatos dirigentes, who should soon be included → very complex sentence structure

• knowledge → equal use of knowledge and information, both without plural

• intellectual superior → you don’t feel superior to others because of your status, but because of your state of mind

• improve your heart at all → emphasis on “um nichts bessern”

• for him, … → shortening of sentences in order to make it less complex

• only → “nicht nur”

• namely morality → it is not the education of the heart and the morality, “of morality”: incorrect use of preposition

• by name → due to repetition, same as “namely”

• without → emphasis on “ohne”, author uses it twice in German

• the utopia of anarchy → unclear connection of subject and object, libertarian utopia does not resemble anarchy in all aspects, but only resembles the utopia of anarchy

10.[Bearbeiten]

Anders als die militanten Anarchisten des 19. Jahrhunderts glaubten die Illuminaten jedoch, ihr Ziel einer herrschaftsfreien Gesellschaft gewaltlos erreichen zu können. Wie Weishaupt in der bereits zitierten Rede erläuterte, meinte er, die Geschichte selbst dabei auf seiner Seite zu haben: Unter Rückgriff auf Denker wie Joachim von Fiore legte er eine Geschichtsphilosophie von drei Weltzeitaltern dar: In der Kindheit der Menschheit habe es weder Herrschaft noch Eigentum noch Streben nach Macht gegeben. Das habe erst in der Jugendepoche Einzug gehalten, als die ersten Staaten entstanden wären, die aber nun mehr und mehr in den „Despotismus“ abgeglitten seien. Dieser selbst lasse aber die Sehnsucht nach dem verlorenen Paradies der Herrschaftslosigkeit entstehen: „Der Despotismus soll selbst das Mittel seyn, um […] den Weg zur Freyheit zu erleichtern“, schrieb Weishaupt in einer Ausarbeitung für die Mysterienklasse seines Ordens. In der Reifezeit des Menschengeschlechts werde der Despotismus dann durch die von ihm selbst ausgelöste Sehnsucht nach Freiheit durch Aufklärung und durch die von ihr gelehrte Selbstbeherrschung gewaltlos überwunden werden. Diese Aufklärung nun zu verbreiten und die Menschheit ins „Gelobte Land“ zurückzuführen, sei die Aufgabe „geheimer Weisheitsschulen“, für die Weishaupt eine ideelle Traditionslinie vom Urchristentum bis zur Freimaurerei behauptete. Zwar seien die Freimaurerlogen heute unpolitisch geworden, doch würden sie den Illuminaten als Maske dienen. Schließlich werde eine Zeit des Verfalls einen neuen Zyklus einleiten.

  • a. P.H.
  • b.

Unlike the militant anarchists of the 19th century, the Illuminti believed that their aim, a society without domination, could be achieved in a nonviolent way. This, as Weishaupt explained in his speech (that has been) cited above, had been proven to be true by history itself. Influenced by thinkers as Joachim von Fiore he described a philosophy of history divided into three World Ages: In the cradle of mankind there was neither dominion, nor private property nor striving for power. These factors only found their way into society in the juvenile state of mankind, when the first nations were created and slowly fell into “despotism”. But this despotism created a yearning for the lost paradise of a world without domination: “This despotism shall be the means to ease the (our?) way into liberty” Weishaupt wrote in a paper for the class of Mysteries of his order. In the mature state, humanity, enlightened by this yearning for liberty created by despotism itself, will overcome despotism non-violently. To distribute this enlightenment and return humanity to the “Holy Land” is the task of “secret schools of wisdom”, for which Weishaupt claims an ideational line of tradition reaching from the first Christians to the Freemasons. Even after the Masonic Lodges became unpolitical, they still served as a front for the Illuminati. Eventually a time of decay would instigate a new cycle.


---


The Illuminati, unlike the militant anarchists of the 19th century, were convinced that their aim - a society free of domination - could be achieved nonviolently. This, as Weishaupt explained in his speech cited above, had been proven to be true by history itself. Influenced by thinkers as Joachim of Fiore, he presented a philosophy that divided history into three World Ages: In the early stages of man’s history, there was neither dominion, nor private property nor striving for power. These factors found their way into society in the juvenile state of mankind, when the first nations were created and slowly fell into despotism. But this despotism created a yearning for the lost paradise of a world without domination. “Despotism itself shall be the device to ease the way to liberty”, Weishaupt wrote in a paper for the class of Mysteries of his order. In the third period, humanity, enlightened by the yearning for liberty created by despotism, will overcome despotism non-violently due to the order’s doctrine of self-mastery. It was the task of “secret schools of wisdom”, for which Weishaupt claimed an ideational line of tradition reaching from the first Christians to the Freemasons, to spread the ideas of enlightenment and to lead humanity back to the “Holy Land”. Even after the Masonic Lodges had become apolitical, they still served as a front for the Illuminati. Eventually a time of decay would introduce a new period of time.

11.[Bearbeiten]

In diesem Geschichtsbild mischen sich mittelalterlicher Chiliasmus und neuzeitliche Utopie, vormoderne Prophezeiung einer erlösten Welt und moderne Prognose, wie diese durch eigenes Handeln zu erreichen sei. Weishaupt verknüpfte zwei gegenteilige Botschaften miteinander: Zum einen predigte er einen Quietismus, der die Ordensmitglieder von jeder Verantwortung für den Fortgang der Geschichte entlastete; zum anderen forderte er einen subversiven Aktivismus, der das bestehende Herrschaftssystem aktiv untergraben sollte. Welche von beiden Aspekten der wichtigere sei, ließ er in der Schwebe. Zum einen hieß es, man brauche nichts zu tun als abzuwarten, denn die Zeit der absolutistischen Despotie würden aus innerer Logik quasi von alleine zu Ende gehen. Auf der anderen Seite behauptete Weishaupt, die Illuminaten würden allein durch ihre Tätigkeit, ja durch ihr bloßes Vorhandensein, an der Aufhebung der Despotien mitwirken. Die Abschaffung der absolutistischen Herrschaft sollte nun nicht auf dem Wege einer Revolution erfolgen, sondern mit den Mitteln der Personalpolitik: Man wollte immer mehr Schlüsselpositionen im absolutistischen Staat übernehmen, um diesen sukzessive in die eigene Gewalt zu bringen. Zu den letzten Stadien seiner Utopie, etwa ob und wie der Staat nach der Machtübernahme tatsächlich abgeschafft werden oder bloß durch die Illuminaten als quasi noch aufgeklärteren Absolutisten in vervollkommneter Weise ersetzt werden würde, machte Weishaupt keine Angaben.

  • a. M.F.
  • b. C.K.

This scene is mixed up with medieval chiliasm and new-age utopia, pre-modern prophecy of a redeemed world and a modern prediction, how to reach this world with one's own acting. Weißhaupt connected two contrary messages: on the one hand he taught a quietism that relieved persons, who were members of monastic orders, of any responsibility within the progress of history; on the other hand he demanded a subversive activism that should actively undermine the current regime. He never clarified which one of the two should be the more important. Furthermore one doesn't need to do anything else than wait and see because the time of the absolutistic despotism is going to end due to its inner logic. According to Weißhaupt, the illuminati would contribute, even by their existence, to the abolishment of despotism. The abolishment of the absolutistic regime should not take place on the basis of a revolution but rather by personnel policy: people always wanted to take over more and more leading roles in the absolutistic state in order to take successively control of it. Weißhaupt didn't furnish particulars about the last stages of his utopia, about if and how the nation would actually be abolished after coming into power or if it would just be fully replaced by the illuminati as even more enlightened absolutists.

Comments:

l.1: scene

l.3. acting; opposed contrary; 

l.4. preached the use is restricted to religious matters taught; disburden word is rarely used relieve; monastic order = Mönchsorder word doesn’t appear in the original text; we inserted a relative clause to make clear that members of monastic orders were relieved; for better: within l. 5: one the one hand furthermore; undermine is going to end by a way of revolution on the basis of one longed to take over people always wanted to take over more and more leading roles

12.[Bearbeiten]

Organisation

Die Illuminaten waren eine der zahlreichen Gesellschaften und Vereine, die kennzeichnend waren für die Herausbildung des modernen Phänomens der Öffentlichkeit während der Aufklärungszeit, wie sie Jürgen Habermas in seiner Studie Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit beschrieben hat. Während die vormoderne Ständegesellschaft sich entweder in der Kirche oder am Fürstenhof sozial reproduziert hatte, bestand nun in Lesegesellschaften, diversen Wohltätigkeitsvereinen (z. B. Hamburgs Patriotischer Gesellschaft), in Freimaurer- und Rosenkreuzerlogen oder eben in Geheimgesellschaften wie den Illuminaten die Möglichkeit, über die Standesgrenzen hinweg auf einem zumindest prinzipiell egalitären Niveau gesellig zusammenzukommen.

Im Unterschied zu den anderen Formen dieser neuen Geselligkeit aber hatten die Illuminaten ein explizit politisches Programm, wohingegen bei Freimaurern etwa konfessionelle, religiöse oder parteipolitische Streitgespräche bis heute unerwünscht sind. Auch bekennen sich Freimaurer zu ihrer Zugehörigkeit und sind deshalb, anders als die Illuminaten, keine Geheimgesellschaft im eigentlichen Sinn. Die Illuminaten übernahmen zwar freimaurerische Strukturen wie die Loge und ein Gradsystem, doch gehörten sie der Freimaurerei nicht an. In den landesweiten Organisationen der Freimaurer, den Großlogen oder Groß-Orienten, arbeiteten sie nicht mit.

  • a. K.W.
  • b. R.K.


Oganisation

The Illuminati were one of the numerous societies and associations which were characteristic for the development of public life as a modern phenomenon during the Age of Enlightenment as described by Jürgen Habermas in his study "The Structural Transformation of Public Sphere". Premodern estate-based society had reproduced culturally either in church or at court. Now it was possible to get together in an (at least theoretically) egalitarian atmosphere beyond social boundaries in groups such as reading societies, diverese charitable organisations (e.g. Hamburg's Patriotic Association), the Freemasons, Rosicrucians, or secret societies like the Illuminati.

Unlike the Freemasons, who discourage confessional, religious, and political disputations until today, the Illuminati had a decidedly political agenda. Additionally, the members of the Freemasons admit their belonging to the group and are therefore, unlike the Illuminati, not a secret society in the proper sense. Although the Illuminati adopted some of the Freemasons' structures, such as the lodges and the hierarchical system, they did not belong to the Freemasons' society and did not participate in their global organisation.


Oganisation (Original Translation)

According to the study "structural change of the public" by Jürgen Habermas, the Illuminati were one of the numerous societies and associations which were typical for the forming of the modern phenomenon of the public. While some elements of the aristocratic society met in church or at court to continue the social traditions, other groups such as reading societies, diverese charitable organisations (e.g. Hamburg's patriotic association), the Freemasons, and Rosicrucians, or secret societies like the Illuminati were able to get together to discuss topics in an egalitarian atmosphere without social boundries.

Unlike the Freemasons who until today do not accept confessional, religious or political disputations, the Illuminati exlusively discussed political matters. Also the members of the Freemasons admit their belonging to the group making them different from the Illuminati who are a secret society. Although the Illuminati adopted some of the Freemasons' structure, e.g. the lodges and the hierarchical system, they did not belong to the Freemasons' society and did not participate in their global organisation.

Commentary 1st sentence: Corrected title of the study; Corrected word order (Habermas didnt claim that the Illuminti were a society but that they are typical for that time); Age of Enlightenment. 2nd sentence: Completely restructured because the original talks about a temporal relation that the first translator misinterpreted. 3rd sentence: Word order; They had a political program. They didnt just discuss politics. 4th+5th sentence: Pretty good; exchanged "e.g." for "such as".

13.[Bearbeiten]

Um die Freimaurerei besser unterwandern zu können, gab Knigge bei seiner Ordensreform den Illuminaten eine an die Freimaurerei angelehnte Struktur mit phantasievoll betitelten Graden, von denen jeder ein eigenes Initiationsritual und eigene „Geheimnisse“ hatte, die dem Initianden offenbart wurden: Eine „Pflanzschule“, die Unerfahrene in das Logen- und Geheimbundwesen einführen sollte, bestand aus den Graden Novize, Minerval (abgeleitet von der römischen Göttin der Weisheit) und Illuminatus minor (lat. für niederer Erleuchteter). Die an die Freimaurerei angelehnte „Maurerklasse“ enthielt die Grade Lehrling, Geselle, Meister, Illuminatus maior (lat. für höherer Erleuchteter) und Illuminatus regens (lat. für leitender Erleuchteter). Den Orden krönen sollte die „Mysterienklasse“, die aus den Graden Priester, Regent, Magus (lat. für Zauberer) und Rex (lat. für Herrscher) bestand. Die Vorschriften und Riten für diese Klasse wurden jedoch in der kurzen Zeit, die der Orden bestand, nicht ausgearbeitet. Ebenfalls als werbewirksame Mystifikation erhielt jedes Ordensmitglied bei seiner Initiation einen Geheimnamen („nom de guerre“), der stets nicht-christlicher oder zumindest nicht-orthodoxer Herkunft war: Weishaupt selbst nannte sich bezeichnenderweise nach dem Anführer des antiken Sklavenaufstands Spartacus, Knigge war Philo, ein jüdischer Philosoph, und Goethe erhielt den Namen Abaris nach einem skythischen Magier. Auch in der Geografie gab es Geheimnamen (München hieß z. B. Athen, Tirol wurde zur Peloponnes, Frankfurt war Edessa und Ingolstadt Eleusis); ja selbst das Datum wurde nach einem neuen Geheimkalender mit persischen Monatsnamen angegeben, dessen Jahreszählung mit dem Jahr 632 begann.

  • a. J.Z.
  • b. T.W.

In order to better infiltrate the Freemasons, Knigge created with his reform of the Illuminati order a structure, similar to that of the Freemasonry, with imaginative titles for various degrees. Each of them had its own initiation ritual and its "secrets" which were revealed to the initiated. A "nursery", which should introduce the unexperienced to the lodge and secret society system, consisted of the degrees Novice, Minerval (derived from the name of the Roman goddess of wisdom)and Illuminatus minor (lat. for minor enlightener). The "Masons class", which was similar to the Freemasonery, included the degrees Apprentice, Journeyman, Master, Illuminatus maior (lat. for major enlightener) and Illuminatus regens (lat. for leading enlightener). The order was meant to be crowned by the "Mysteries class" consisting of the degrees Priest, Regent, Magus (lat. for wizard) and Rex (lat. for sovereign). The rules and rites were however not elaborated in the short time during which the order existed. Also, as an advertising mystification, every member received at his initiation a secret name ("nom de guerre")which was always of non-christian or at least of unorthodox origin. Weishaupt for example typically called himself after Spartacus, the leader of the ancient slave rebellion. Knigge was Philo, a Jewish philosopher and Goethe was given the name Abaris after a Scythian mage. There were secret names in geography, too (Munich was called Athens, Tirol Peloponnes, Frankfurt Edessa and Ingolstadt Eleusis). Even the date was counted according to a secret calendar with Persian month names, starting in the year 632.

In order to improve the infiltration of the Freemasons, Knigge reformed the order, giving a structure similiar to that of the Freemasonry to the Illuminati, including imaginative titles for various degrees. Each of the degrees had its own initiation ritual and its "secrets" which were revealed to the initiated. A "nursery", which should introduce the unexperienced to the lodge and secret society system, consisted of the degrees Novice, Minerval (derived from the name of the Roman goddess of wisdom)and Illuminatus minor (lat. for minor enlightener). The "Masons class", which was similar to the Freemasonery, included the degrees Apprentice, Journeyman, Master, Illuminatus maior (lat. for major enlightener) and Illuminatus regens (lat. for leading enlightener). The order was meant to be crowned by the "Mysteries class" consisting of the degrees Priest, Regent, Magus (lat. for wizard) and Rex (lat. for sovereign). The rules and rites were however not elaborated in the short time during which the order existed. Also, as an advertising mystification, every member received a secret name at his initiation ("nom de guerre") which was always of non-christian or at least of unorthodox origin. Weishaupt significantly named himself after Spartacus, the leader of the ancient slave rebellion. Knigge was called Philo, who was a Jewish philosopher and Goethe was given the name Abaris after a Scythian magician.


Word order (German influence) Knigge created _with his reform of the Illuminati order_ a structure „…every member received _at his initiation_ a secret name…“ Vocabulary Called-->named for example typically --> significantly (unnescessary addition to text: for example) Knigge was Philo --> Knigge was called Philo, who was (style) mage --> magician (more commonly used)

14.[Bearbeiten]

Die Ordensnamen trugen zur Gleichheit unter den Illuminaten bei: Da sie sich in den ersten beiden Graden nur mit Ordensnamen kannten, konnten sie voneinander nicht wissen, wer nun adlig, wer bürgerlich, wer ein Universitätsprofessor, wer nur Schankwirt oder Student war. Darüber hinaus waren sie ein Teil des rigiden Bildungsprogramms, das der Orden seinen Mitgliedern auferlegte. Jeder Illuminat hatte sich nicht nur mit seinem Namenspatron geistig auseinanderzusetzen, er bekam auch von seinen Ordensvorgesetzten ein monatliches Lesequantum, in dem aufklärerische und deistische Werke mit aufsteigenden Graden eine immer größere Rolle spielten. Seine intellektuelle und sittliche Entwicklung hatte er obendrein tagebuchartig in so genannten Quibuslicet-Heften zu protokollieren (von lat.: quibus licet – wem es erlaubt ist [ergänze: dies zu lesen]). Wurden sie schlecht geführt oder enthielten sie nicht die vorgesehenen Fortschritte, antwortete der Ordensobere mit einem „Reprochen-Zettel“ (franz. reproche: Tadel).

Bei aller Gleichheit innerhalb der Grade war die Hierarchie zwischen verschiedenen Graden im Orden also sehr ausgeprägt. Dies zeigte sich schon an dem Eid, in dem jeder Initiand

„ewiges Stillschweigen in unverbrüchlicher Treue und Gehorsam allen Oberen und den Satzungen des Ordens.“ zu geloben hatte. Zur strengen Hierarchie kam noch verschärfend die esoterische Struktur des Ordens hinzu, das heißt, dass Neumitglieder über dessen wahre Ziele bewusst getäuscht wurden. In der „Pflanzschule“ wurde den Novizen noch bedeutet, es sei keineswegs das Ziel des Ordens

„die weltlichen oder geistlichen Regierungen zu untergraben, sich der Herrschaft der Welt zu bemächtigen und so weiter. Haben sie sich unsere Gesellschaft unter diesem Gesichtspunkt vorgestellt, oder sind sie in dieser Erwartung hineingetreten, so haben sie sich gewaltig betrogen.“

Das war glatt gelogen. Im obersten Grad des Ordens sollte nämlich das „größte aller Geheimnisse“ offenbart werden „das so viel sehnlich gewünscht, so oft fruchtlos gesucht haben, [die] Kunst, Menschen zu regieren, zum Guten zu leiten […] und dann alles anzuführen, was den Menschen bishero Traum und nur den Aufgeklärtesten möglich schien.“


The names given by the order made a contribution to equality between the members of the Illuminati order. In the first two ranks they only knew each other under their name within the order, so they could not know who was noble and who was middle class, who was a professor at university or just an innkeeper or student. Moreover they were part of a rigid education programme, which the order imposed upon its members. Every member not only had to deal with the people they were named after on a spiritual level, they also received an amount of texts to read on a monthly basis from their superior. These readings contained more and more works from the theories of Enlightment or Deism, the higher they got in rank . They also had to make note of their intellectual and ethical development in a type of diary, the so called Quibuslicet-booklets (from Lat.: quibus licet - to whom it is permitted). If these booklets were kept sloppy or if they did not represent the development wished by the superiors the members received a "Reproche-note" (French reproche: reproach).

Despite the equalitiy within one rank, there was quite a prominent hierarchy between the different ranks. This is even represented by the oath, due to which every new member had to swear "eternal silence in inviolable faith and obedience to all superiors and to the statutes of the order." In addition to the strict hierarchy there were strong esoteric structures, which meant that new members were deceived deliberately about the real aims of the order. In the "Pflanzschule" (monastic school) the novices were told that "undermining the mundane or clerical authorities or striving for the sovereignty of the world.", was by no means the aim of the order and that if they had imagined this and had joined the community for this reason they have betrayed themselves heavily" This was a lie. "The greatest of all secrets" should be revealed in the highest rank. "The secret which so many have longed for and have searched for in vain, the ability to rule over people, that they change for the better and then to lead everything which so far has been the dream of the people and only reachable for the enlightened."


  • a. J.E.
  • b. R.M.
  • c. D.V.

15.[Bearbeiten]

Das tiefste Arkanum der Illuminaten war also ihr eigenes moralisches Herrschaftssystem, das innerhalb des Ordens bereits praktiziert wurde, nun aber auch nach außen angewandt werden sollte. Diese Täuschung und Gängelung der Mitglieder in den unteren Graden erregten schon bald auch innerhalb des Ordens Kritik. Sie waren Weishaupts Ziel geschuldet, das Individuum durch Anregung zur Selbsterziehung und durch verborgene Leitung zu perfektionieren. Voraussetzung dieser Verbesserung des einzelnen Menschen schien ihm die totale Kenntnis über alle seine Geheimnisse zu sein. Dies scheint er von seinen schärfsten Gegnern übernommen zu haben, nämlich den Jesuiten, mit ihrem Kadavergehorsam und ihrer behutsamen, aber umso wirkungsvolleren Menschenführung durch die Beichte. Überhaupt blieb der Orden, wie der Illuminatenforscher Agethen feststellte, seinen Gegnern in einer dialektischen Verschränkung verbunden: Um das Individuum von der geistigen und geistlichen Herrschaft der Kirche zu emanzipieren, wurden jesuitische Methoden der Gewissenserforschung angewandt; um den Siegeszug der Aufklärung und der Vernunft zu befördern, gab man ein Hochgradsystem und ein mystisches Brimborium, das an den schwärmerischen Irrationalismus der Rosenkreuzer gemahnte; und um die Menschheit schließlich aus dem Despotismus der Fürsten und Könige zu befreien, unterwarf man die Mitglieder einer nachgerade totalitären Kontrolle und Psychotechnik.

  • a. D.V.
  • b. R.M.
  • c.

The most valuable secret of the Illuminati was their own moral system of authority, which was already practiced within the order, but was now supposed to be applied on the outside world. The deceit of the lower-positioned members soon provoked disagreements within the order. This was caused by Weishaupt's aim to lead the individual to perfection by encouraging it to practice more self-discipline and by covert leadership. For him the condition for this improvement of the individual was presumably the entire knowledge of all his secrets. It seems that he adopted this concept from his arch-enemy, the Jesuits, which were known for their slavish obedience and their gentle but so more effective leadership by means of confession. Actually, according to Illuminati-expert Agethen, the order stayed in a dialectic entanglement with its opponents: they used the Jesuist methods of investigating the conscience in order to emancipate the individual from the intellectual and spiritual domination of the church; they also used a ranking system and mystical fuss, similar to the enthusiastic irrationality of the Rosicrucians, to further the success of Enlightenment and rationality. They subjected their members to an utterly totalitarian monitoring and psychological techniques in order to ultimately free mankind of the despotism of princes and kings.


Mitglieder

Die Illuminaten hatten einigen Erfolg: Zu Beginn der 1780er Jahre kam der Orden in 70 verschiedenen Städten des Reichs auf 1500 bis 2000 Mitglieder, welche zu rund einem Drittel zugleich Freimaurer waren. Schwerpunkte waren Bayern und die thüringischen Kleinstaaten Weimar und Gotha; außerhalb des Reiches lassen sich Illuminaten nur in der Schweiz nachweisen.

Der Sozialhistoriker Eberhard Weis untersuchte stichprobenartig die Sozialstruktur des Ordens und kam zu folgendem Ergebnis: Rund ein Drittel seiner Mitglieder waren Adlige, immerhin 12 Prozent Geistliche. Fast 70 Prozent der Illuminaten hatten eine akademische Ausbildung, die Zahl der Handwerker lag mit fast 25 Prozent deutlich höher als die der Kaufleute, die mit unter 10 Prozent deutlich unterrepräsentiert waren. Die ganz überwiegende Mehrheit der Illuminaten mit fast 75 Prozent bestand aus Beamten, Offizieren und sonstigen Staatsdienern, was angesichts des Ordensziels, den absolutistischen Staat zu unterwandern, nicht verwundern kann. Weishaupt selbst gab 1787 stolz an, es sei dem Orden gelungen, mehr als ein Zehntel der höheren Beamtenschaft Bayerns zu stellen. Besonders deutlich war dieser Unterwanderungserfolg im bayrischen Zensurkollegium, das bis zum Einschreiten des Kurfürsten 1784 fast ausschließlich aus Illuminaten bestand. Dementsprechend war die Praxis der Behörde: Schriften von Ex-Jesuiten und andere gegenaufklärerische oder klerikale Schriften, ja sogar Gebetbücher wurden verboten, aufklärerische Literatur dagegen befördert.


Members

The Illuminati had some success: In the beginning of the last two decades of the 18th century the order counted between 1500 to 2000 members in 70 different cities of the empire; of these members one third were freemasons. The main emphasis was layed on Bavaria as well as on the Thuringian ministates Weimar and Gotha. Outside the empire, Switzerland was the only country the Illuminati could be detected.

The historian (of social practices?) Eberhard Weis examined the social structure of the order by carrying out a spot check and came up with the following result: About one third of its members were noblemen and at least twelve percent clergymen. Nearly 70 percent of the Illuminati had an academic education while the number of tradesmen counted 25 percent. This was considerably higher than those of the merchants, who were underrepresented with less than 10 percent. Almost every member of the Illuminati, overall counting 78 percent, was either a civil servant, an officer or some other kind of public officer. This didn't seem to be a surprise, due to the goal of the order resulting in undermining the absolutistic state. In 1787 Weishaupt himself stated proudly that the order had managed to recrute more than one tenth of the aristocracy of Bavaria. This was realized in the successful process of undermining the Bavarian councils of censorship, of which almost everyone was Illuminati, until the intervenience of the elector in 1784. Therefore the practices of the authorities were orientated towards the order: On the one hand documents written by Ex-Jesuits, or other oppositional and undeceivable literature as well as clerikal documents, even prayer books were forbidden, while on the other hand deceivable literature was supported.

  • a. J.B.
  • b. A.S.

16.[Bearbeiten]

Dieser vorübergehende Erfolg kann nicht darüber hinwegtäuschen, dass der Illuminatenorden zum überwiegenden Teil aus durchaus zweitrangigen Akademikern bestand, die vielleicht gerade deshalb in den Orden strömten, weil sie sich von ihm Karrierechancen erhofften, eine Hoffnung, die durchaus mit Weishaupts Unterwanderungskonzept korrelierte. Diese Ziele waren neu aufgenommenen Mitgliedern freilich unbekannt. Sein eigentliches Ziel, nämlich die intellektuelle und politische Elite der Gesellschaft zu bilden, erreichte der Orden kaum. Von den erwähnten Ausnahmen abgesehen (Goethe, Herder, Knigge), blieben alle wirklich bedeutenden Vertreter der deutschen Spätaufklärung dem Orden entweder gänzlich fern (Schiller, Kant, Lessing, aber auch Lavater, um den sich Knigge lange vergeblich bemüht hatte) oder traten wie Friedrich Nicolai rasch aus Enttäuschung über die rigiden Strukturen innerhalb des Ordens wieder aus. Von einer realen Gefährdung des bayrischen Staates durch den „Bücherwurm Weishaupt und seine Kameraden, Utopisten im guten wie im lächerlichen Sinne“ konnte keine Rede sein, doch „die Herausforderung an die alten Mächte war freilich auch in dieser handzahmen Form noch zu stark“.[7]

Mythen und Verschwörungstheorien

Die Illuminatenhöhle bei Aigen (Salzburg) (siehe Schloss Aigen), ein Beispiel für die verklärte Sicht auf den Illuminatenorden im Sturm und Drang

Bis heute wird in zahlreichen Verschwörungstheorien kolportiert, die Illuminaten hätten nach ihrem Verbot weiter bestanden und seien verantwortlich für eine Vielzahl von Erscheinungen, die von den Verbreitern solcher Mythen als unerfreulich beurteilt werden.

This temporary success cannot hide the fact that the Illuminati order mainly consisted of quite subordinate academics who maybe joined the order especially in the hope of more career opportunities. Indeed their hope correlated with Weishaupt’s concept of infiltration. Of course new members were ignorant about those intentions. The order hardly achieved its actual aim, namely to form the intellectual and political elite of society. Apart from the mentioned exceptions (Goethe, Herder, Knigge), all the really important representatives of the German "Spätaufklärung" either completely absented themselves from the order (as Schiller, Kant, Lessing, but also Lavater whom Knigge unsuccessfully tried to convince of joining for a long time) or shortly afterwards quit, just as Friedrich Nicolai did, out of disappointment about the rigid structures within the order. “Bookworm Weishaupt and his companions, utopists in a good and a ridiculous way” were never considered a real threat for the state of Bavaria but “the challenge for the old regimes was of course still too strong, even in this moderate form.”

Myths and Conspiracy Theories

The Illuminati cave near Aigen (Salzburg), an example of the transfigured view of the Illuminati order during the "Sturm und Drang"

Even nowadays many conspiracy theories spread the rumours, that the Illuminati continued existing even after their ban and that they were responsible for a great amount of phenomena that were considered unpleasant by the utterers of such myths.

- the adverb can't stand between verb and object ("mainly" before "consisted") - "subordinate" instead of "inferior": we thought it suits better with the German sense - "academic" instead of "university graduates": simplier and sounds better - we added "especially" because it wasn't mentioned in the translation - "indeed" instead of "in fact": sense - "of course" at the beginning: stress - we put "the order" at the beginning - "sein Ziel" = aim of the order (not "his"): grammar stresses this fact - "achieve an aim", not "reach an aim" - "quit" instead of "left the group": better sense - we added "still" - "spread the rumours" instead of "suggest": sense of "kolportieren" - "utterers" instead of "people who spread such myths"


  • a.L.K.
  • b.J.R.

17.[Bearbeiten]

Einer recht großen Popularität erfreuen sich Verschwörungstheorien, nach denen die Illuminaten die Entstehung der USA beeinflusst haben sollen. Diese sind schon aufgrund der zeitlichen Abfolge (der Amerikanische Unabhängigkeitskrieg begann bereits 1775, also vor der Gründung des Ordens) als unhaltbar zu erkennen. Nicht zuletzt wurden die Illuminaten für die Französische Revolution verantwortlich gemacht. Dieser folgenreiche Verdacht wurde zuerst 1791 von dem französischen Priester Jacques François Lefranc in seinem Buch Le voile levé pour les curieux ou les secrets de la Révolution révéles à l’aide de la franc-Maçonnerie formuliert (übersetzt etwa: Der Schleier gelüftet für die Neugierigen, oder die aufgedeckten Geheimnisse der Revolution über die Hilfe der Freimaurerei). Ihre weite Verbreitung verdankt sie aber zwei anderen Autoren, die kurz danach umfangreiche Werke über die Ursachen der Französischen Revolution verfassten: Der französische ehemalige Jesuit Abbé Barruel und der schottische Gelehrte John Robison versuchten unabhängig voneinander nachzuweisen, dass nicht etwa die andauernde Unterdrückung des Dritten Standes, die Verbreitung der Ideale der Aufklärung, die Missernte des Vorjahres und das schlechte Krisenmanagement König Ludwigs XVI. die Revolution ausgelöst hätten, sondern die Illuminaten. Hierfür führten sie vor allem drei Belege an:

• Erstens seien fast alle bedeutenden Führer der Revolutionäre Freimaurer. Die umstandslose Gleichsetzung von Freimaurern und Illuminaten ist aber, wie oben erwähnt, falsch. • Zweitens existierte in Frankreich kurz vor der Revolution tatsächlich eine Freimaurerloge, die sich – ganz ähnlich wie Weishaupts Orden – „Les Illuminés“ nannte, „die Erleuchteten“. Dass diese Gruppe aber sehr klein und wenig einflussreich war, störte ebenso wenig wie die Tatsache, dass die französischen „Illuminés“ eher einer mystischen Richtung anhingen und mit der Radikalaufklärung à la Knigge und Weishaupt nichts im Sinn hatten. • Drittens war bekannt geworden, dass Johann Christoph Bode 1787 nach Paris gereist war. Zweck seines Aufenthalts, der nur vom 24. Juni bis zum 17. August währte, war aber keineswegs die Auslösung der Revolution: Bode war vielmehr zu einem Freimaurerkonvent eingeladen, der aber bei seiner Ankunft schon beendet war.


Conspiracy theories, according to which the Illuminati should have influenced the incurrence of the USA, enjoy pretty great popularity. Those are already untenable because of the chronology (the American Independence War had already began in 1775, so before the founding of the order). The Illuminati were also blamed for the French Revolution. This weighty suspicion was first formulated in 1791 by the French priest Jacques Francois Lefranc in his book Le voile levé pour les curieux ou les secrets de la Révolution révéles à l’aide de la franc-Maçonnerie (translated something about: The veil got raised for the curios, or the exposed secrets of the revolution about the help of the Freemasonry). But its prevalence is due to two other authors, who shortly after composed extensive writings about the reasons for the French Revolution: The French ex-Jesuit Abbé Barruel and the Scottish scholar John Robison independently of each other tried to proof that not the permanent oppression of the third class nor the spread of Enlightenment ideals, not the bad harvest of the previous year, nor the bad crisis management of King Ludwig XVI have brought about the revolution, but the Illuminati. For this, they especially cited three pieces of evidence: first, almost all meaningful leaders of the revolutionaries were Freemasons. But, as mentioned above, it is wrong to equate the Freemasons with the Illuminati. Secondly, right before the revolution, there had actually existed a masonic lodge, which called itself - similar to Weishaupt's order - "les Illuminés", which means "the inspired". This group was small and not very influential, but this didn't bother anyone, as well as the fact, that the French "Illuminés" rather followed a mystical path and that they didn't care about the radical enlightenment á la Knigge and Weishaupt. Thirdly, it was announced that Johann Christoph Bode had travelled to Paris in 1787. The intention for his stay, that only lasted from 24th June till 17th August, was not the resolution of the revolution at all: Bode was rather invented to a Freemason convention, which had already been finished when he arrived.

  • a. C.B.
  • b. C.W.
  • c.

Comments by J.E., R.M., D.V.:

                 L.1: "should have" -> had (makes it more clear, that this is not the case)
                      "incurrence" -> foundation ("incurrence" means Übereinstimmung)
                      "enjoy pretty great popularity" -> enjoy quite some popularity (less colloquial)
                 L.2: "began" -> begun (correct past participle)
                      "so" -> which had been ("so" sounds very German to me)
                 L.3: "blamed for" -> responsible for starting (seems closer to the meaning in the German original to me)
                      "weighty suspcion" -> this suspicion with consequences
                 L.5: "due to" -> due to the influence of (somehow seems to be an improvement to me)
                 L.6: "composed" -> sounds very lyrical to me: I'd change the sentence into: who shortly after wrote extensive 
                                    papers about...
                 L.7: "not" -> neither (correct way to make negative enumerations)
                 L.8: "not" -> nor (same reason)
                      "have brought about" -> brought about (simple past instead of present perfect)
                 L.9: "first" -> Firstly (Capital after colon, +ly)
                      "meaningful" -> important (meaningful somehow sounds odd to me)
                 L.10: "equate" -> put the Freemasons on one level with the Illuminati (equate sounds very technical to me)
                 L.11: "had actually existed a masonic lodge" -> actually a masonic lodge had existed (word order)
                       "which called itself" -> which was called (a lodge can't call itself sth.)
                       Maybe change the whole sentence into: Secondly right before the revolution a masonic lodge actually 
                                                             existed which, similarly to Weihaupt's order was called "les 
                                                             Illumniés" ...
                 L.13: "it was announced" -> it became public (it was announced sounds odd to me)
                 L.15: "which had already been finished when he arrived" -> which was over already when he arrived

18.[Bearbeiten]

Der These, hinter der Französischen Revolution stünden die Illuminaten, fehlt jede Grundlage. Dennoch wurden Barruels und Robisons Werke große Erfolge. Im deutschsprachigen Raum verbreitete vor allem die kurzlebige konservative Zeitschrift Eudämonia (1795–1798) diese Theorie.[8] Bis heute haben solche Verschwörungsszenarien ihre Faszination für viele rechtsradikale Publizisten und Gruppierungen nicht verloren.[9] Zu nennen sind hier zum Beispiel Nesta Webster, eine bekannte englische Faschistin und Verschwörungstheoretikerin der zwanziger Jahre, die amerikanische John Birch Society oder der amerikanische christliche Prediger Pat Robertson. Auch die Obsession, mit der antisemitische Verschwörungstheoretiker wie Des Griffin und Jan Udo Holey („Jan van Helsing“) immer neue Spuren des Ordens imaginieren, zeigt den engen Zusammenhang zwischen Rechtsradikalismus und anti-illuminatischer Paranoia. Diese zählebigen Verschwörungstheorien erhielten unter anderem dadurch Nahrung, dass einige okkultistische oder theosophische Gruppen und Grüppchen versuchten, sich selbst als die angeblich jahrzehntelang im Untergrund verschwundenen Illuminaten zu stilisieren: 1896 gründete zum Beispiel der Historiker Leopold Engel den Weltbund der Illuminaten, der die Nachfolge von Weishaupts Orden beanspruchte. 1929 wurde dieser eingetragene Verein wieder aus dem Berliner Vereinsregister gelöscht. Auch der 1912 entstandene Ordo Templi Orientis oder die 1978 gegründeten Illuminaten von Thanateros versuchen, sich in eine Traditionslinie zu den bayrischen Illuminaten zu stellen, doch haben sie mit dem aufklärerisch-rationalistischen Orden Weishaupts, Bodes und Knigges nichts zu tun.

  • a. D.R.
  • b. L.R.

There is no evidence for the thesis that the Illuminati were behind the French Revolution. Nevertheless did the works of Barruel and Robinson become very successful. In the German-speaking area it was especially the short-lived and conservative magazine "Eudämonia" (1795-1798) which spread that theory. Such conspiracy scenarios have kept their fascination for a lot of extreme right-wing journalists and groups until today. Worth mentioning are for example the famous British fascist and conspiracy theorist of the twenties, Nesta Webster, the American John Birch Society or the American Christian preacher Pat Robertson. The close connection between right-wing extremism and anti-Illuminati paranoia is also shown by the obsession with which anti-Semitic conspiracy theorists such as Des Griffin and Jan Udo Holey ("Jan van Helsing") imagine new traces of the order time and again. These tough and thus long-lasting theories of conspiracy could only survive because occultist or theosophic groups tried to proclaim themselves as the alleged Illuminati who had kept themselves in the underground for decades and decades. As an example, the historian Theobold Engel claimed the succession of Weishaupt's order and founded the World Union of Illuminati in 1896 which was erased from the Register of Unions in Berlin in 1929. The in 1912 arisen Ordo Templi Orientis or the Illuminati of Thanateros founded in 1978 tried to join the line of traditions of the Bavarian Illuminati but they don't have anything in common with the progressive-rationalist order of Weishaupt, Bode and Knigge.


There is no evidence for the thesis that the Illuminati were behind the French Revolution.

Still the works of Barruel and Robinson were a huge success. -> sentence structure

It was mainly the short-lived and conservative magazine “Eudämonia” (1795-1798) that spread this theory throughout the German-speaking world. -> unidiomatic sentence structure and phrasing

Until today such conspiracy scenarios still exist among a lot of extremist right-wing journalists and groups. -> personification not appropriate for Wikipedia texts

The famous British fascist and conspiracy theorist of the twenties, Nesta Webster, the American John Birch Society or the American Christian preacher Pat Robertson are worth mentioning here. -> unidiomatic sentence structure and phrasing

The close connection between right-wing extremism and anti-Illuminati paranoia is also shown by the obsession with which anti-Semitic conspiracy theorists such as Des Griffin and Jan Udo Holey ("Jan van Helsing") imagine reoccurring traces of the monastic order. -> inappropriate word choice

These persistent conspiracy theories could only survive because occultist or theosophical groups tried to proclaim themselves as the alleged Illuminati who had kept themselves secret for decades. -> word choice, unnecessary repetition

For example the historian Theobold Engel founded the World Union of Illuminati which claimed the succession of Weishaupt’s order in 1896 and was removed again from the Register of Unions in Berlin 33 years later. -> unidiomatic expression, word choice, bad stylistic sentence structure

The Ordo Templi Orientis originated in 1912 and the Illuminati of Thanateros founded in 1978 try to join the line of traditions of the Bavarian Illuminati as well, although they do not have anything to do with the progressive-rationalist order of Weishaupt, Bode and Knigge. -> inappropriate word choice, grammatical incorrectness, wrong tempus

19.[Bearbeiten]

Die Illuminaten im Roman

Die Illuminaten werden gerne in populären Romanen dargestellt, so zum Beispiel in der Romantrilogie Illuminatus! von Robert Shea und Robert Anton Wilson, in Umberto Ecos Das Foucaultsche Pendel oder in Illuminati von Dan Brown. Hier werden sie als finstere Schurken, undurchsichtige Komplottschmieder oder dämonische Weltverschwörer dargestellt, denn die genannten Autoren schöpfen nicht aus den quellenmäßig gut belegten historischen Fakten über den Orden, sondern überwiegend aus den Verschwörungstheorien, die über ihn im Umlauf sind. Gleichwohl werden heute oftmals diese fiktiven Angaben über die Illuminaten irrtümlich für wahr gehalten. Auch waren Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) und Bernini (1598–1680) keine Mitglieder, wie es bei Brown heißt, und sie stehen auch nicht in einer jahrtausendealten Traditionslinie von keltischen Druiden über Assassinen und Templer mit dem Ziel, den „umbilicus telluris“ (lat.: Nabel der Erde) zu finden.

Besonders populär ist die in den Romanen verbreitete Annahme, die Illuminaten hätten bestimmte Symbole besessen, mit denen sie ihre Existenz für Eingeweihte und findige „Symbolologen“ erkennbar gemacht hätten. Zu diesen vermeintlichen Illuminaten-Symbolen gehören unter anderem

• das Allsehende Auge • das Allsehende Auge als Abschlussstein einer Pyramide (siehe auch: Siegel der Vereinigten Staaten) • die Zahl 23 • Ambigramme

Keines dieser Symbole lässt sich historisch mit den Illuminaten in Verbindung bringen. Es erscheint auch wenig plausibel, dass eine international agierende Verschwörung, als die die Illuminaten oft bezeichnet werden, überall ihre Symbole hinterlassen würde. Die Illuminaten benutzten nur ein Symbol für ihre „geheime Weisheitsschule“, nämlich die Eule der Minerva.


  • a. S.K.
  • b. J.F.


The Illuminati in novels

The Illuminati are often illustrated in famous novels for example in the trilogy “Illiminatus” by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson, in “Foucault's Pendelum” by Umberto Eco or in “Angels and Demons” by Dan Brown. The authors mentioned above don't draw on serious sources which provide well proven historic information about the order, but rather on conspiracy theories about it, which are in circulation. This is why they are described as evil villains as well as mysterious and diabolic conspirators. However this speculative information about the Illuminati is often mistaken to be true. Neither Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) nor Bernini (1598-1680) were members of the Illuminati, which they are in Browns novel, and they also didn't follow the thousand year old tradition of Celtic druids, assassins and Templers, who had the intention to find the "umbilicus telluris" (lat. hub of the world).

The assumption that the Illuminati would have owned certain symbols that they used to prove their existence to insiders and quick-witted symbologists, can be widely found in novels. The following symbols are supposed to belong to those used by the Illuminati. -The all-seeing eye -The all-seeing eye as pyramidion (Great Seal of the United States), the number 23, ambigrams. None of these symbols are historically related to the Illuminati. It also doesn't make sense that an international operating conspiracy, which is often associated with the Illuminati, would leave their symbols everywhere. The Illiminati only use one symbol that is for their "Secret School of Wisdom", namely the owl of minerva.




The Illuminati in novels

The Illuminati are often illustrated in famous novels, for example in the “Illiminatus” trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson, in “Foucault's Pendelum” by Umberto Eco or in “Angels and Demons” by Dan Brown. The authors mentioned above do not rely on serious sources which provide well proven historic information about the order, but rather on conspiracy theories which are in circulation about the order. This is why they are described as evil villains as well as mysterious and diabolic conspirators. However this speculative information about the Illuminati is often mistaken as the truth. Neither Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) nor Bernini (1598-1680) were members of the Illuminati, which they are said to be in Brown's novel, and they also did not follow the thousand year old tradition of Celtic druids, assassins and Templers, who had the intention to find the "umbilicus telluris" (lat. hub of the world).

The assumption that the Illuminati had owned certain symbols which they used to prove their existence to insiders and clever symbologists, can be widely found in novels. The following symbols are supposed to belong to those used by the Illuminati.

  • the all-seeing eye
  • the all-seeing eye as pyramidion (Great Seal of the United States)
  • the number 23
  • ambigrams

None of these symbols are historically related to the Illuminati. It is also highly implausible that an internationally operating conspiracy, as which the Illuminati are often labeled, would leave their symbols everywhere. The Illuminati only used one symbol for their "Secret School of Wisdom", the owl of Minerva.

  • comma after 'novels' (l.1) grammar
  • trilogy 'Illuminatus' -> 'Illuminatus' trilogy (l.1) word order
  • don't = do not (l.3) colloquial
  • draw -> rely (l.3) word choice
  • sentence structure (l. 4) too german (position of the relative clause)
  • to be true -> as the truth (l.6) grammar
  • didn't = did not (l.7) colloquial
  • Browns = Brown's (l.7) grammar
  • which they are -> which they are said to be (l.7) meaning
  • would have = had (l.10) grammar, tense
  • that -> which (l. 10) style
  • quick-witted -> clever (l.10) word choice
  • It also doesn't make sense -> It is also highly implausible (l.13) colloquial, bad beginning of the sentence
  • international = internationally (l. 13) grammar
  • which is often associated with the Illuminati -> as which the Illuminati are often labeled (l.14) wrong meaning!
  • The Illiminati only use one symbol that is for their "Secret School of Wisdom", namely the owl of minerva. -> The Illuminati only used one symbol for their "Secret School of Wisdom", the owl of Minerva. (l. 14-15) typo, tense, 'that is' not necessary, 'namely' superfluous

20.[Bearbeiten]

Bezüge in Filmen und anderen Medien Auf die Illuminaten wird auch häufig in Filmen, Büchern, Computerspielen und Musikstücken angespielt. Der hohe Bekanntheitsgrad ihres Namens durch Verschwörungstheorien, in denen sie zu einer sehr geheimen und sehr mächtigen Gruppe gemacht werden, prädestiniert sie immer wieder für die Rolle der mysteriösen Bedrohung. Populärste Beispiele sind:

• Filme: 23 – Nichts ist so wie es scheint, Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, Illuminati (Film), Die Whoopee Boys • Kartenspiel: Illuminati • Pen-&-Paper-Rollenspiel: GURPS Illuminati • Computerspiele: Deus Ex, Deus Ex: Invisible War, Area 51 und Resident Evil 4 • Musikstück: Welle: Erdball 23


Films and other media The Illuminati are often alluded to in movies, books, computer games and music. Their name is very well known because in a lot of conspiracy theories they have a reputation to be a very secret and very powerful group, which makes them predestined to play the role of the mysterious threat.

Some popular examples: - movies: 23, Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, Illuminati, The Whoopee Boys - card games: Illuminati - Pen & Paper roleplays: GURPS Illuminati - computer games:Deus Ex, Deus Ex: Invisible War, Area 51 and Resident Evil 4 - songs:Welle: Erdball 23

Text II[Bearbeiten]

Original text.

Das Ende der Freien Stadt

Frankfurter Fürstentag

[This has already been translated] Auch nach der Auflösung der Nationalversammlung und der Wiederherstellung der Bundestagsdiplomatie 1850 setzte sich die demokratische Opposition weiterhin für ihre Forderungen ein, auch wenn der Senat mit Rücksicht auf die deutschen Fürsten einen restaurativen Kurs steuerte. Trotzdem kam es allmählich auch in der altertümlichen Stadtverfassung zu Reformen. 1853 brachte eine Wahlrechtsreform den Bewohnern des Landbezirks das Wahlrecht. Die Gerichts- und Verwaltungsreform von 1856 führte die Gewaltenteilung ein, indem sie die Senatoren aus den Gerichten und der Gesetzgebenden Versammlung zurückzog. Gerichtsverfahren fanden künftig in öffentlicher und mündlicher Verhandlung statt und die anderswo längst üblichen Schwurgerichte wurden eingeführt. [This has already been translated]

A.[Bearbeiten]

1851 bis 1859 vertrat Otto von Bismarck die preußischen Interessen als Gesandter beim Deutschen Bundestag in Frankfurt. Die Liberalität der bürgerlichen Frankfurter Gesellschaft und die Freiheit der Presse missfielen ihm gründlich. Am 14. April 1853 schrieb er an den Minister von Manteuffel: Was die demokratische Stimmung und die Wühlereien unter der Bevölkerung von Stadt und Umgegend betrifft … so können wir meiner Überzeugung nach diesen Gefahren erst dann mit Erfolg entgegentreten, wenn wir diesen Teil von Deutschland einer militärischen Diktatur ohne jede Rücksicht auf gerichtliche Formen und deren Schutz unterwerfen …'[8]

1864 fielen nach jahrelangen Auseinandersetzungen endlich die Reste der mittelalterlichen Zunftordnungen. Die Gewerbefreiheit setzte sich durch, und auch die letzten Einschränkungen der Rechte jüdischer Bürger wurden abgeschafft. Kurz vor dem Ende der Freien Stadt, im Juni 1866, wurde anstelle des bisherigen, nach Berufsständen geordneten Wahlverfahrens für die Gesetzgebende Versammlung ein direktes Mehrheitswahlrecht für alle Bürger eingeführt, das allerdings weiterhin an das Bürgerrecht und damit ein Vermögen von mindestens 5000 Gulden gebunden war. Das neue Wahlrecht wurde vor der preußischen Annexion nicht mehr angewandt.

Wegen der von Handel und Handwerk bestimmten Wirtschaftsstruktur und der fehlenden Gewerbefreiheit gab es in Frankfurt bis 1866 kein Industrieproletariat. Dem 1863 gegründeten ersten Arbeiterverein Frankfurts gehörten nur 67 Mitglieder an, davon 33 Schneider.

The Prussian ambassador, Otto of Bismarck represented the interests of Prussia at the German Bundestag in Frankfurt from 1851 to 1859. The liberality of the Frankfurt middle class and the freedom of the press were much to his dislike. On April 14, 1853 he wrote to the minister of Manteuffel: "Regarding the democratic spirit and turmoils within the population of the city and its neighbouring regions... I am sure that we will only be able to successfully face these threats by subjecting this particular part of Germany to a military dictatorship, without any consideration of judicial norms or the preservation of these."

After years of conflict the remains of the medieval guild system finally disappeared in 1864. Economic freedom prevailed and even the last restrictions on the rights of Jewish citizens were abolished. In June 1866, right before losing its status as a free city, a direct majority voting system for all citizens was introduced to the legislative branch, instead of the previous electoral procedure which had been arranged according to profession. This new system still presumed citizenship, which meant having at least 5000 guilder. This new election law, however, was never used before Prussian annexation.

Because of the economic structure determined by trade and craft and because of the lack of economic freedom, there was no industrial proletariat in Frankfurt up until 1866. The first workers‘ association, founded in 1863, had only 67 members, of which 33 were tailors.

L.1: As -> The; sign for a subordinate-clause L.4: annihilate -> face; closer to the original L.6: what remained -> the remains; syntax L.7: Free City -> free city; no capitalisation needed (looks like a proper name) L.7: the end of the free city -> losing its status as a free city; too ambigous L.8f.: a direct majority voting system for all citizens was introduced to the legislative branch, instead of the previous electoral procedure which had been arranged according to profession; changed the syntactical order L.9: was still tied to being a citizen ->still presumed citizenship; previous version was unclear


  • a. M.M.
  • b. K.F.

B.[Bearbeiten]

Der preußisch-österreichische Gegensatz steuerte Deutschland inzwischen immer mehr auf einen Krieg zu. Auch der Frankfurter Fürstentag, im August 1863 auf Einladung Österreichs abgehalten, brachte aufgrund des preußischen Boykotts keine Lösung. Das Scheitern des Gipfeltreffens brachte aber die Frankfurter Öffentlichkeit, die schon seit jeher mit Österreich sympathisierte, vollends gegen Preußen auf. Auch die liberale Frankfurter Presse war mehrheitlich antipreußisch, vor allem die seit 1617 bestehende Frankfurter Ober-Post-Amts-Zeitung, das französischsprachige Journal de Francfort und die seit 1856 bestehende Handelszeitung. In der seit 1860 erscheinenden satirischen Zeitschrift Frankfurter Latern kritisierte Herausgeber Friedrich Stoltze die Politik Bismarcks in immer schärferen Glossen und Karikaturen. Er wurde daraufhin mit Haftbefehl in Preußen gesucht und konnte die Grenzen seiner Heimatstadt nicht mehr verlassen.

Im Umfeld des 1859 in Frankfurt gegründeten Deutschen Nationalvereins gab es jedoch auch einflussreiche Frankfurter, die an die „preußische Sendung“ zur Herstellung der deutschen Einheit glaubten. Ihr Sprachrohr war das nationalliberale, preußisch subventionierte Frankfurter Journal. Preußischer Generalkonsul in Frankfurt war der angesehene Bankier Moritz von Bethmann, der auch einer der Gastgeber des Fürstentages gewesen war. Aus Protest gegen die Bismarcksche Politik gab er sein Amt jedoch später auf.

  • a. NG
  • b. ELM

The Prussian-Austrian conflict was, by then, pushing Germany more and more towards war. Due to the Prussian boycott, not even the Frankfurt diet of princes, held in August 1863 by Austrian invitation, could come up with a solution. The summit´s failure, however, set the Frankfurt public, that had been sympathizing with Austria all along, completely against Prussia. Also, the liberal Frankfurt Press was predominantly anti-Prussian: Especially the Frankfurt Ober-Postamts-Zeitung founded in 1617, the Journal de Francfort, published in French, and the Handelszeitung, established in 1856. In the satirical magazine Frankfurt Latern, first published in 1860, editor Friedrich Stoltze criticized Bismarck´s policy in increasingly polemic commentaries and caricatures. As a reaction to this, Prussia had a warrant out for Stoltze’s arrest so that he wasn’t able to leave the borders of his home town.

However, in the sphere of the German National Assembly, founded in Frankfurt in 1859, there were also influential Frankfurters who believed in the “Prussian mission” to establish a German unity. It was the national-liberal Frankfurter Journal, which was subsidized by the Prussians, to be the movement’s voice. The Prussian consul general of Frankfurt was the highly respected banker Moritz von Bethmann, who had been one of the hosts of the diet of princes. In protest against Bismarck’s policy, he later resigned his post.


Correction

The Prussian-Austrian conflict was, by then, pushing Germany more and more towards war. Even the congress called by Austria, the Frankfurter Fürstentag, in August 1863 could not come up with a solution because of the Prussian boycott. As a result of the summit's failure, the Frankfurt public, which had long been sympathizing with Austria, was set completely against Prussia. The liberal Frankfurt Press was also predominantly anti-Prussian, especially the Frankfurt Ober-Postamts-Zeitung, founded in 1617, the Journal de Francfort, published in French, and the Handelszeitung, established in 1856. In the satirical magazine Frankfurt Latern, first published in 1860, editor Friedrich Stoltze criticized Bismarck´s policy in increasingly harsh commentaries and caricatures. This led to Prussia having a warrant out for Stoltze’s arrest so that he was not able to leave his home town.

However, in the sphere of the German National Assembly, founded in Frankfurt in 1859, there were also influential Frankfurters who believed in the “Prussian mission” to establish German unity. The movement’s voice was the national-liberal Frankfurter Journal, which was subsidized by the Prussians. The Prussian consul general of Frankfurt was the highly respected banker Moritz von Bethmann, who had been one of the hosts of the Fürstentag. He later resigned his post in protest against Bismarck’s policy.

- due to, diet : word choice

- by Austrian invitation: does not really fit into the context

- set against: active sentence transformed into passive because of the sentence structure

- also was in the wrong position

- polemic: word choice

- as a reaction to this: word choice

- wasn't is too colloquial

- borders is not necessary

- a is not necessary

- movement's voice: sentence structure is German

- last sentence: sentence structure is German

C.[Bearbeiten]

Als sich im Frühsommer 1866 der Deutsche Krieg unausweichlich abzeichnete, blieb die Stadt getreu ihrer Devise Stark im Recht bundestreu. Sie stimmte am 14. Juni 1866 für die Bundesexekution gegen Preußen, erklärte jedoch gleichzeitig, dass sie sich nicht am Bruderkrieg beteiligen werde. Es gelang ihr jedoch nicht, sich aus den kriegerischen Verwicklungen herauszuhalten, da Preußen die Frankfurter Bundestreue als feindlich ansah und Bismarck entschlossen war, die deutsche Einheit unter Preußens Führung mit Gewalt herzustellen und Österreich aus der deutschen Politik zu verdrängen.

Am 16. Juli 1866 okkupierten Preußische Truppen unter General Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein die unverteidigte Stadt und belegten sie sofort mit schärfsten Repressalien. Bereits am 17. Juli wurde ihr eine erste Kontribution von rund 5,8 Millionen Gulden auferlegt, die sofort bezahlt wurde. Der am 20. Juli zum Nachfolger Falckensteins ernannte Edwin von Manteuffel erhob daraufhin eine zweite Kontributionsforderung von 25 Millionen Gulden, die von den damals etwa 35.000 Bürgern der Freien Stadt aufgebracht werden sollte (unter denen nur etwa 8.000 steuerpflichtig waren). Zahlreiche Bürger, darunter alle Mitglieder des Senats, wurden mit Einquartierungen belegt, die Bürger hatten ihre privaten Reitpferde für die Armee zu stellen, die Händler und Gastwirte der Stadt gezwungen, große Vorräte an Lebensmitteln, Wein und Zigarren an die preußischen Feldintendantur auszuliefern. Den Frankfurter Zeitungen mit Ausnahme des Journals wurde das Erscheinen verboten, der Redakteur der Oberpostamtszeitung, Hofrat Fischer-Goullet, wurde verhaftet und erlitt bei einer Vernehmung einen tödlichen Schlaganfall. Die Senatoren Bernus, Müller und Speltz wurden als Geiseln in die Festung Köln gebracht, durften jedoch am 19. Juli gegen Verpfändung ihres Ehrenworts wieder nach Frankfurt zurückkehren. Zahlreiche Frankfurter flohen ins Ausland, so Friedrich Stoltze nach Stuttgart und der Naturforscher Eduard Rüppell in die Schweiz. Ende 1866 durften die Emigranten im Rahmen einer allgemeinen Amnestie zurückkehren.


  • a. AA
  • b. MA
  • c. BS

When the German war inevitably loomed in the early summer of 1866, the town remained loyal to the German Confederation, according to its motto "faith in federal law". On 14 June 1866, they ("it" sounds odd) voted for the confederate execution against Prussia, though at the same time declaring that it would not ("wouldn't" is too informal / oral) participate in the civil war. Still, the town was not ("wasn't" = see comment above on "wouldn't") able to refrain from the entanglements of war, as Prussia regarded the Frankfurt Confederate loyalty as hostile. Bismarck was determined to violently establish the German unity under Prussian rule and to oust Austria from German politics.

On 16 July 1866 (dates should be mentioned in a uniform manner), the undefended city was occupied by Prussian (national adjectives are always capitalized) troops under their General Edward Vogel of Falckenstein, who (not "which" because: reference to a person) immediately ("immidiately: wrong spelling) imposed ("put" is the wrong word for it) strict reprisals on the town. Only one day later, on July 17th, a first payment of 5.8 million guilder was imposed on the town.

Edwin of Manteuffel, who was appointed as succesor of Falckenstein on the 20th July, raised a second demand of contribution of 25 million guilder. This contribution had to be payed by the 35.000 citizens of the free town, among whom approximately 8.000 had to pay taxes. Numerous citizens, among them all members of the senate, were imposed with accomodations. The citizens had to provide their own saddle-horses for the army and the traders and landlords were forced to hand over large provisions, vine and cigars to the Prussian army command. Publishing was forbidden for all the newspapers of Frankfurt except for the journal. The editor of the newspaper of the main post office and privy councillor Fischer-Goullet was arrested and suffered a deadly stroke. The senators Bernus, Müller and Speltz were held hostage in the fortress of Cologne but were allowed to return to Frankfurt as a consequence of pledging their word of honour. Numerous citizens of Frankfurt escaped to foreign countries, like Friedrich Stoltze who escaped to Stuttgart and the natural scientist Eduard Rüppell who escaped to Switzerland. In the end of 1866, the emigrants were allowed to return according to a general amnesty.

D.[Bearbeiten]

Der Senat unter Bürgermeister Fellner lehnte einen freiwilligen Anschluss der Stadt an Preußen nicht grundsätzlich ab und erklärte sich bereit, die Stadtgeschäfte als Bevollmächtigter der Besatzer weiterzuführen. Fellner wurde am 22. Juli vom preußischen Militärkommando vereidigt und plädierte im Senat dafür, die zweite Kontributionsforderung ebenso wie die erste zu erfüllen, jedoch bei der preußischen Regierung um eine Möglichkeit zur Ratenzahlung zu bitten.

Die Gesetzgebende Versammlung und die Ständige Bürgerrepräsentation der Freien Stadt lehnten diesen Vorschlag jedoch am 23. Juli 1866 ab, um gegen die Behandlung der Stadt zu protestieren. Der preußische Stadtkommandant, Generalmajor von Röder, legte dies als offene Rebellion aus und forderte Fellner auf, bis zum nächsten Morgen eine Proskriptionsliste mit den Namen und Besitzverhältnissen aller Mitglieder der städtischen Körperschaften offenzulegen. Andernfalls drohte er mit der Bombardierung und Plünderung der Stadt.

Fellner fand sich somit in einem unauflösbaren Konflikt zwischen seinen Pflichten gegenüber der Stadt und ihren Bürgern einerseits und seinem Eid als Regierungsbevollmächtigter andererseits – eine Situation, in der er keinen anderen Ausweg als den Selbstmord sah. Am Morgen seines 59. Geburtstages, dem 24. Juli 1866, erhängte sich Fellner in seinem Wohnhaus in der Seilerstraße.

  • a.St.S
  • b. J. M.

The senate under Mayor Fellner did not reject a voluntary affiliation of the city to Prussia categorically and agreed to continue managing the city’s affairs as representatives of the occupying force. On July 22, Fellner was put on oath by the Prussian military command and pleaded in the senate for meeting the second claim of contribution as well as the first one, though, asking the Prussian government for the possibility of deferred payment.

However, the legislative assembly and the permanent citizen’s representation of the independent city rejected this proposal on July 23, 1866, in order to protest against the treatment of the city. Prussian’s town major, Major General von Röder, construed this as open rebellion and requested Fellner to disclose a list of proscription with the names and property situations of all members of the municipal corporation by the next morning. He threatened that otherwise he would bomb and plunder the city.

Fellner found himself in an irresolvable conflict between his duties to the city and its citizens on the one hand, and the oath to plenipotentiary on the other hand – a situation, out of which he did not see another expedient but suicide. On the morning of his 59th birthday, on July 24, 1866, Fellner hanged himself in his residence in Seilerstraße.

Version

  • C.S.
  • S.S.

The senate under Mayor Fellner did not categorically reject a voluntary affiliation of the city to Prussia and agreed to continue managing the city’s affairs as representatives of the occupying force. After Fellner was put under oath by the Prussian military command on July 22, he pleaded in the senate to comply with the second claim of the contribution as well as with the first one. He was all the same asking the Prussian government for the possibility of deferred payment. – the adverb (categorically) belongs with the verb – to put under oath instead on oath – sentence structure seemed too long and complicated, split it up in two

On July 23, 1866 however, the legislative assembly and the permanent citizens’ representation of the independent city rejected this proposal in order to protest against the treatment of the city. The Prussian commanding officer in charge of the city, Major General von Röder, interpreted this as an open rebellion and ordered Fellner to draw up a list denouncing the names and property situations of all members of the municipal corporation until the next morning. Otherwise the city would be bombed and plundered. – the town major actually is the “commanding officer in charge of the city” – interpret is stronger than request (too friendly) – draw up instead of disclose (he has to write it down yet, so it doesn’t exist at that point) – denouncing instead of proscription – sentence structure and style

Fellner found himself in an irresolvable conflict between his duties to the city and its citizens on the one hand, and the oath as a representative of the military command on the other hand – a situation which he thought he could only escape by committing suicide. On July 24, 1866, the morning of his 59th birthday, Fellner hanged himself in his home in Seilerstraße. – oath of plenipotentiary sounds too technical and voluntarily chosen by the citizens, representative of the military command is more according to what he actually was – sentence structure, commiting suicide, escape instead of expedient (expedient would mean a more positive solution) -

E.[Bearbeiten]

Obwohl die Mitteilung seines Todes von der preußischen Militärbehörde unterdrückt wurde, verbreitete sie sich rasch in der Bürgerschaft. Über 6.000 Bürger gaben ihm bei seinem Begräbnis auf dem Hauptfriedhof am 26. Juli 1866 das letzte Geleit, obwohl die Beerdigung auf Anordnung des Stadtkommandanten am frühen Morgen um vier Uhr 30 stattzufinden hatte. Bei der Trauerfeier überreichte Fellners Schwager, Appellationsgerichtsrat Kugler, dem neuen preußischen Landrat Dienst die leere Proskriptionsliste und den Strick, mit dem Fellner sich erhängt hatte.

Danach wurden die schlimmsten Repressalien gelockert. Bismarck hatte in diplomatischen Kontakten mit dem französischen Kaiser und dem russischen Zaren die Gewissheit gewonnen, dass diese der preußischen Annexionspolitik keinen Widerstand entgegensetzen würden. Eine Delegation der Stadt unter Führung des Senators Müller erreichte Ende Juli bei Bismarck in dessen böhmischem Hauptquartier einen Aufschub der Kontributionsforderung, erhielt aber zugleich die Mitteilung, dass die Annexion beschlossene Sache sei. Am 28. Juli setzte Preußen eine Zivilverwaltung unter dem Landrat Guido von Madai ein und ernannte Senator Samuel Gottlieb Müller zum amtierenden Bürgermeister. Im September stimmten beide Häuser des preußischen Landtags für das von der Regierung vorgelegte Annexionsgesetz, das am 23. September veröffentlicht wurde. Die Annexion vollzog sich am 8. Oktober 1866 mit der öffentlichen Verlesung des Patentes wegen Besitznahme der vormaligen Freien Stadt Frankfurt und der Allerhöchsten Proclamation an die Einwohner der vormaligen freien Stadt Frankfurt durch den neuen Zivilgouverneur von Patow auf dem Römerberg. In das Hoch auf den König soll nur ein einziger der versammelten Frankfurter eingestimmt haben.

Nach dem Ende von über 600 Jahren als eigenständige Stadtrepublik verblieben in Deutschland nur noch drei Stadtstaaten: Lübeck, das 1937 an Preußen fiel, sowie die Freie Hansestadt Bremen und Hamburg, die diese alte Tradition bis heute fortsetzen.

  • a.M.W.
  • b.S.B.
  • c.N.P.


The news of his death was spread quickly among the people although this information was kept back by the Prussian military authorities. (to keep back is used rather in combination with concrete objects than with abstract ones we started with the subordinate clause because it is closer to the original text and it makes more sense)

->The news of his death however was repressed by the Prussian military authorities the information spread quickly among the people.


Even though the funeral took place at 4.30 a.m. as ordered by the town major, over 6000 citizens paid him their last respects at his funeral in the main cemetry on the 26th of July in 1866. (dude - the sentence sounded a bit odd... the date was wrong, you don't need the 'the' and the month comes usually first)

->Even though the town major arranged the funeral to take place at 4.30 a.m., over 6000 citizens paid him their last respect at the main cemetery on July 26th 1866.


During the funeral service Fellner´s brother-in-law, Kugler, handed to the new Prussian district administrator Dienst the blank proscription list together with the rope which Fellner had used to hang himself.

->During the funeral Fellner's brother-in-law Kugler, a judge at the Court of Appeal, handed the blank proscription list together with the rope, which Fellner had used to hang himself, to the new Prussian district administrator Dienst.

After this the most severe reprisals were eased. In his diplomatic contacts with the French emperor and the Russian tsar, Bismarck had gained certainty that they would not withstand his policy of Prussian annexation. In July, a delegation of the town under the leadership of Senator Müller obtained a delay of the claim for contribution at Bismarck's Bohemian headquarters, but at the same time they were informed that the annexation had already been agreed to. On July 28th, Prussia established a civil administration under the district administrator Guido von Madai and nominated Senator Samuel Gottfried Müller the official mayor. In September, both houses of the Prussian Landtag voted for the annexation law presented by the government, which was released on September 23rd. The annexation was carried out on October 8th 1866 when the new Civil Governor von Patow publically read out the patent concerning the occupation of the former Free Town of Frankfurt and the Highest Proclamation towards the inhabitants of the former Free Town of Frankfurt on the Römerberg. Only a single one of the citizens of Frankfurt assembled is said to have joined in the Hail to the King.

After the end of a period of over 600 years as an independant city republic, only three city-states remained in Germany: Lückeck, which was incorporated into Prussia in 1937, as well as the Free Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg, both of which have continued this old tradition to this day.