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In Utero - Erklärung d. Symbole[Bearbeiten]

The White Sow[Bearbeiten]

was one of the most popular and widely distibuted animal forms of the goddess. Astarte, Cerridwen, and DEMETER appeared as sows. One of Frey's numerous names was Syr, "the Sow."A carving at the Tarxien temple on Malta shows a sow with thirteen teats, a lunar animal symbolizing the thirteen annual lunations. Thirteen became a bad luck number only because of its ancient association with lunar goddess worship.

Buddhists still speak of Marici, the Diamond Sow, a great goddess seated on her lotus throne attended by seven pigs. She is called glorious one, sun of happiness. The brilliant whiteness of the divine sow was perceived in the white and shiny surface of the eminently female-symbolic cowrie shell, which the Romans named porcella, "Little Sow." From this word for whiteness and shininess came our word "Porcelain"

The brilliance of the White Sow and her seven porcine attendants is prominete in the Celtic myth of the Princess Goleuddydd, "Bright Day," mother of Culhwch, whose name meant something like "womb, or hiding place, of the pig." Though the myth was partly Christianized, it retained the essential episode of Goleuddydd goving birth in a sow's lair. "Obviously she is the Sow-mother, the sow-goddess, and Culhwch stole a comb from the head of the magic boar, Twrch Trwyth, who may have been a sow originally; because he lay in his lair with his seven piglets - something only a female would do.

The Welsh saints Dyfrig, Kentigern, Cadog, and Brynach all were said to have founded monasteries at places where they were led by a magic White Sow. This is fairly good evidence that all of them were only pseudosaints, or loosely Christianized versions of earlier pagan heroes, the men of the Sow.


Jar[Bearbeiten]

A jar spouting streams of water was a fertility symbol in Egypt and the Middle East from the beginning of civilization. The Goddess Isis wore on her neck a jar-shaped amulet representing her own fountains of living water, "the emblem of Ma," or Mother as the primordial Deep. According to Apuleius, water in a jar also represented Osiris. It was Nile water, lifted up in the ritual of the god's ressurection, exactly as the chalice is elevated at Christian altars today.

In India, any deity could be incarnated in a jar of water, which was called the holy seat (pitha) of the deity for the duration of the worship. In Greece the cognate word was pithos, a jar. Merging of the Goddess with her consort was often described as a mingling of waters from two jars. When Demeter Cabiria took the young god Cabirius as her consort in the Cabirian mysteries of Phrygia, both deitied were represented by water jars.

The Gospel story of a mysterious man bearing a jar of water to lead Jesus into Jerusalem (Luke 22:10) was based on the Babylonian precedent, wherein the saviour god Nebo, or Nabu, was led to the place of his immolation and ressurrection by a "jar-bearer." As in the worship of Osiris, Cabirius, and other fertility gods, the jar temporarily symbolized the deity himself.

Jar ceremonies were prominent in the three-day Anthesteria, a spring rebirth festival of Dionysus. The first day was Jar Opening (Pithoegia), when the new wine from the previous vintage was tasted. The second day was Pitcher Feast (Choes), when the wife of chief archon was formally impregnated by the god. The third day was the Feast of Pots (Chytroi), when the spirits of the dead were propitiated and supposedly, like the vine god himself, ressurrected from the underworld. Association of the jar with the springtime Savior was already old, long before Christianity assimilated it.

Honeycomb[Bearbeiten]

Pythagoreans percieved the hexagon as an expression of the spirit of Aphrodite, whose sacred number was six (the dual Triple Goddess), and worshipped bees as her sacred creatures who understood how to create perfect hexagons in their honeycomb. In Aphrodite's temple at Eryx, the priestesses were melissae, "bees"; the Goddess herself was entitled Melissa, the queen bee "who annually killed her male consort"; and a golden honeycomb was on display as her symbol. Seeking to understand the secrets of nature through geometry, the Pythagoreans meditated on the endless triangular lattice, all sixty degree angles, that results from extending the sides of all hexagons in the honeycomb diagram until their lines meet in the center of adjacent hexagons. It seemed to them a revelation of the underlying symmetry of the cosmos.

Moreover, since honey and salt were the only commonly known preservatives at the time, both were symbols of ressurrection or reincarnation. The dead were often embalmed in honey, especially in the large pithoi or burial vases, where they were placed in fetal position for rebirth. Demeter was "the pure mother bee" who governed the cycles of life, as was the biblical Deborah whose name means "bee." Honey cakes formed like female genitals figured prominently in worship of the Goddess. The bee was usually looked upon as a symbol of the feminine potency of nature, because it created this magical, good tasting substance and stored it in hexagonal cells of geometric mystery. With so many ancient connections with the Goddess, it was inevitable that medieval hyms addressed the virgin Mary as a "nest of honey" and "dripping honeycomb."

Dolphin[Bearbeiten]

The name of the dolphin comes from Greek delphinos, which also meant "womb." It was a totem of Demeter in her role as Mistress of the Sea, while the serpent represented her as Mistress of the Earth. The famous statue called The Boy on the Dolphin was once a religious image, depicting the young sun god born out of the sea, raised up on the back of a dolphin. At the time, most people believed that a whale or dolphin was a large fish; the fact of sea-dwelling mammals was not known.

According to the classical myth, the dolphin was placed among the stars as constellation Delphinus, because it played a matchmaking role in winning the hand of the sea Goddess Amphitrite for Poseidon. However, this was a late invention, intended to elevate Poseidon at the expense of Amphitrite, who was just another title of the Great Goddess ruling the sea. "The marriage involved the interference by male priests with female control of the fishing industry." Amphitrite was demoted from goddesshood to being a mere nereid. In Greek art, nereids were often shown riding over the waters on dolphins.

Shown on funeral urns, dolphins represented the soul passing to another world.

Triangel[Bearbeiten]

As the four way designs of squares and crosses usually represent the male principle, so the three way design of the triangle and its many relatives usually represent the female principle. One reason the ancients so greatly revered the number seven was that the four and the three were united within it. The Goddess was the original trinity, for most of her oldest manifestations had three aspects; the classical virgin, mother, and crone. All three were the same individual just as each woman is one even though her life encompasses all three states or personae. This triangular Goddess exsisted even for early Christian Gnostics who worshipped her as the female Protennoia, who had three names, "Although she exsists alone, since she is perfect."

In India the Goddess was the original Trimurti, or Trinity, although the three gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva later laid claim to this title. Nevertheless, the goddess as Parashakti - the Mother of these gods - was represented by a triangle holding the gods as three small seed pods within herself.

Australian aborigines worshipped the Goddess as Kunapipi, meaning "Old Woman" or "Mother," in a triangular dancing area that they viewed as the Mother's genital center. The connection between this concept and that of the triangular yoni yantra in ancient India is quite clear, especially since anthropologists believe the aboriginies were Dravidian migrants from India some time in the distant past.

The Greek letter 'D' (delta) is a triangle. As in India, it was similarly described as "the letter of the vulva," and also as the Holy Door (of birth). It was the first syllable of Demeters name, the rest being meter, "mother." One of the oldest of Greek Goddesses, in fact pre-Greek, Demeter was also a trinity represented by the female triangle. Although she was the earth, she was three. Her young consort in classical myth, Triptolemus or "Three Plowings" was so named because he had to "seed her fields" three times in order to fertilize the whole Triple Goddess.

It seems likely that the triangle became a common symbol for "woman" because it was originally a symbol for "goddess" and many of the objects associated with her. Cakes for religious festivals were often baked in triangular form. the Jewish tradition of triangular hamantaschen for Purim apparently adopted the Egyptian custom of making triangular cakes for public rituals. Even in the twentieth century, Scottish countryfolk baked triangular cakes for Halloween (the old Celtic feast of Samhain), calling the woman who baked the cakes "the Bride." After a reign of one year, she would be displaced by the Caillech, or "Auld Wife" - that is, the incarnation of the Crone.

In Christian Gnostic literature there was a holy trinity of Marys, copied from the Moerae or Fates, who stood by the tree of god's sacrifice as the three Marys stood by Jesus' cross. Gnostic scriptures agree that two of them were "Mary his mother...and Magdalene, the one who was called his companion." But the third Mary remained mysterious; she was called the sister of his mother (his aunt) in another sentence. No one really knew who those Marys were, but it was traditional for them to be present.

Certain folkloric sources even remembered that the triangle was a sign of the Goddess as Wise Crone (Athene), and gave it the title of Creative Intellect.

Mare[Bearbeiten]

Iron Age Britain worshiped the Goddess Epona as the White Mare, who is now called the White Horse as she appears in the famous 374 ft chalk-cut image in an Uffington hillside. She was similar to the Greek/Cretan Leukippe, "White Mare," who was the daytime aspect of Mareheaded Demeter. Her destroyer aspect was called Melanippe, "Black Mare," otherwise known as Demeter the Avenger (Erinys) in the form of a night-mare, punisher of sinners. The same title was applied to the Queen of the Amazons, who also appears in Greek myth as Antiope, or Hippolyta, "Charging Mare." Epona's name came from Gallic epo, in turn from Indo-European ekwo, which also gave the Latin equus.

Scandinavian witches were said to turn themselves into mares, after the manner of the ancient priestesses who may have worn equine masks like Leukippe's mareheaded priestesses. Such witches were called volvas. The cult of the divine mare persisted in Ireland up to the twelfth century, when Giraldus Cambrensis described the coronation of a king of Ulster, involving the kings gexual union with a white mare, which was afterward sacrificed and sacramentally eaten. Pagan religious feasts often used horsemeat, which was otherwise taboo or devoted to the Goddess. Modern prejudice against the eating of horsemeat seems to have developed from Christian condemnation of the old rites.

Rose[Bearbeiten]

The red and white rose was adopted by alchemists as a symbol of the vas spirituale, the sacred womb from which the filius philosophorum would be born. This was an ancient female symbol of the virgin daughter (white) within the mother (red), formerly applied to such images as Kore/Demeter and Mary/Eve. The conglomerate rose was similar to the apple (the mother and the fruit), containing its five lobed core (the daughter and the flower). Symbolism was drawn entirely from female creative powers. White and red were the sacred colors of the Virgin and Mother, respectively. In male-centered systems, however, the black of the destroying Crone was pointedly omitted.

Baubo[Bearbeiten]

In the Eleusinian Mysteries, celebrated at one of the oldest emples in Greece, Baubo was a female clown who managed to draw laughter from the Goddess Demeter in the midst of her grief, when she was hiding away and withholding the gift of fertility from the world. Along with limping Iambe, the female spirit of lewd verse in the "limping" iambic meter, Baubo induced the Great Mother to forget her anger long enough to take a little nourishment.

Hellenic writers described Baubo as an old nurse, that is, a Crone figure corresponding in the usual trinitarian fashion to the Virgin Iambe and the Mother Demeter. However, statues of Baubo consisted of the lower half of a womans body with a face on a large (perhaps pregnant) belly, the rest concealed by a fantastic wig/costume.

Apparently Baubo symbolized the lascivious jokes made by women during Demeter's fertility rites. Such jokes used to be considered essential to the efficacy of the ceremonies. The resemblance between a face and the front of a female torso seems to have been a pereninial favorite thousands of years before Magritte painted his well known Le Viol, which expresses the same theme.

It is interesting to find a Baubo figure also in ancient Japanese mythology. She was the Alarming Female, Ame-no-uzume-no-mikoto, who created a face on the front of her body to draw laughter from Heaven-Shining-Great-August-Goddess Amaterasu, when she was hiding her light in the cave. The Alarming Female induced Amaterasu to emerge, bringing sunlight to the world again.

In both mythological traditions, the "alarming" idea seems to be that the world's welfare depends on the relief of female sadness or fear and the restoration of female sexuality, merriment, and joy.

Diameter[Bearbeiten]

The diameter is a symbol drawn from the flat horizon of sea or desert plain, dividing the world into two halves above and below. The word Diameter means literally "Goddess Mother" and may refer to ancient creation myths in which the body of the world mother herself (Tiamat, Themis, Temu, Maa) was divided into upper and lower halves. Often, water was said to be her primordial substance, so the symbol of the Dia Meter also suggests the division of waters above the earth plane and from waters below the earth.

In Alchemical symbolism the diameter meant "salt," which is appropriate in view of its connection with the sea.

Furies[Bearbeiten]

The three Furies represented one of Greece's oldest images of matriarchail law: the triple goddess as punisher of transgressors. The Furies were also known as Erinnyes (Angry Ones) after Demeter Erinys, the Avenger; or Eumenides (Kindly Ones) in an effort to flatter and pacify them; or Solemn Ones, to whom altars were dedicated for propitiatory sacrifices. Individualy, they were Tisiphone (Retaliation-Destruction), Megaera (Grudge), and Alecto (Unnameable). They were older than all the gods. As relics of the matriarchal age, they recognized no principle of paternity but punished only those who sinned against kinfolk in the maternal line.

The Furies pursued Orestes for having commited matricide, the one unforgivable crime under the old law. It was believed that the blood of a slain mother called down the Furies' wrath upon the criminal, automatically. Orestes bit off one of his fingers in an attempt to absolve himself of blood guilt - a custom that is still common in some parts of the world - and left it at the so called Finger Tomb, surmounted by a finger of stone.

Sophocles called the Furies "Daughters of Earth and Shadow." Aeschylus called them "Children of Eternal Night." Either epithet made them offspring of the female spirit of primal darkness at the creation and linked them to the primordial concept of the Mother's Curse whereby the Goddess inevitably ended each life that she brought forth. Some said the Furies were monsters with gorgon-like snake hair, black dog faces, and bat wings. Others said they were stern but beautiful women carrying scourges and swords. Psychologically, they were images of the Scolding Mother and projections of the young child's death fears and pangs of conscience.

Pluto[Bearbeiten]

The planet Pluto was unknown to the ancients, because it cannot be seen with the naked eye. Therefore it was rather arbitrarily named Pluto in 1930 by its discoverer, C.W. Tombaugh, after the classical Greek version the dark god of Hades. A tailed P symbol was invented for it. Astrologers now had to fit Pluto into their system, even though no astrologer knew of its exsistence until a mere half century ago.

The dark god Pluto was himself a Hellenic revision of a former Great Mother's title, meaning "riches" or "abundance." There was a female Pluto among the pre-Hellenic elder deities whom the Greeks despised and discredited in their myths. This Pluto seems to have been combined with Demeter in a triple form, as Kore (Virgin), Pluto (Mother), and Persephone (Crone, Destroyer).

Poppy[Bearbeiten]

Since opium and its derivatives - morphine, and heroin - are extracted from the opium poppy, it is hardly surprising to find the flower associated with sleep, inertia, numbness, and death. Demeter as a death goddess was often shown with poppies. The Etruscans' Island of the Souls of the Dead was pictured with decorations of poppy capsules. On the other hand, the poppy was also associated with fertility because of its numerous seeds. Poppy seeds contain no opium and are a good food source. Poppy leaves, sacred to Mother Hera, were used for divination.

The scarlet ornamental poppy, Papaver Bracteatum, contains no opium either, but it does have the alkaloid thebaine, which can be converted into codeine, but not readily into heroin. Thebaine yields an important narcotic antagonist, naloxone, which is given to infants born of heroin addicts, to help soften the shock of withdrawl that such infants must go through.

Moon[Bearbeiten]

Perhaps no other natural object has been more widely revered, from such extremely ancient periods, than the moon. As a rule the new or crescent moon was its recognized symbol, becuase the full moon would have been a simple circle, which carried other connotations, frequently solar.

Because of its apparent connection with women's cycles of "lunar blood," which was supposed to give life to every human being in the womb, the moon became the prime symbol of the Mother Goddess everywhere. The Greek name of Europa, eponymous mother of continental Europe, means "full moon" and was a former title of Hera or Io as the white moon-cow, and of other versions of the Goddess as well, such as Demeter and Astarte. Albion, the old name of Britain, meant "white moon" and referred to the Goddess until the monk Gildas converted her into a fictitious male Saint Alban. A primal deity of Persia was Al-Mah, the moon, whose name became the Hebraic Almah, "nubile woman": the word Christians insisted on translating "virgin" when it was applied to the mother of Jesus. Another derivative was the Latin alma mater, living mother-soul of the world.

Romans revered the primal Moon Mother as either Luna or Mana (Mania), whose worship Christians condemned as 'madness' (lunacy). She was the mother of the archaic ancestral spirits called Manes, annualy propitiated at the Manalia festival. The same Goddess Mana ruled archaic Scandinavia, Arabia, and Central Asia. Mana came from Sanskrit Manas, "mind," an attribute of Ma the primordial mother; it was also related to Latin mens, meaning both "mind" and "moon" as well as a mysterious quality of spiritual power (nu-men).

According to Moses Maimonides, moon worship was the religion of Adam, and the bible contains many traces of pre-Jahvistic reverence for the moon. Old Testament kings wore "ornaments like the moon" and so did their riding animals (Judges 8:21). Prophets denounced Hebrew women for wearing lunar amulets (Isaiah 3:18). Agla, one of the "secret names of God" much used in Hebrew magic, is usually translated "light" but in meant specifically moonlight, Aglaia was an ancient name of the Moon Goddess. A Talmudic tradition said the Yahweh himself had to make a sin offering for offending the moon. The Moon Goddess showed little respect for Yahweh or any of his cohorts, according to the Apocalypse of Baruch: when Adam and Eve wept over their sin, then everything else wept with them, "the heaven and the sun and the stars, and creation was stirred even to the throne of God; the Angels and the powers were moved for the transgression of Adam." All except the moon, who laughed.

Saint Augustine condemned women for their "impudent and filthy" dances in honor of the new moon. And yet, lunar timing was so important to the saviour tradition that Christians insisted that the full moon shone on Jesus' crucifixion - even though there was supposed to have been a solar eclipse also, which can only during the dark of the moon. Lunar traditions continued to be associated with women throughout the Middle Ages. Folklore and ballads show that women were encouraged to pray for special favours not to God but to their own deity, the Moon Mother, by whom they also swore their oaths. Just as Jeremiah's opponents doggedly continued to bake cakes for the Queen of Heaven (the moon) despite the prophet's fulminations against her (Jeremiah 44:19), so the women of Christian Europe continued to bake moon cakes, which the French called croissants or "crescents" for their lunar holidays. Modern birthday cakes descended from the Greek custom of honoring the monthly birthday of Artemis the Moon with lighted full-moon cakes. Witches continued to invoke the Goddess by "drawing down the moon." In some areas, crops could not be sown nor weddings celebrated except at appropriate times of the moon. Everything having to do with the management of domestic animals seemed to depend on the moon. And, of course, no sorcerer or witch undertook magical operations without first checking the proper phase of the moon.

So im portant was the moon goddess in pre-Islamic Arabia that her emblem came to represent the entire country, and still does so, as the lunar crescent on Islamic flags. As Manat, the old Moon mother of Mecca, she once ruled the fates of all her sons, who also called her Al-Lat, the Goddess. Now she has been masculinized into "Allah," who forbids women to enter the shrines that were once founded by priestesses of the Moon. In Central Asia, her heavenly orb was described as the mirror that reflects everything in the world. It is still said that the moon's reflection on water is the prime remedy for nervous hysteria.

Bee[Bearbeiten]

Bees were greatly prized in the ancient world as makers of the honey that was simultaneously a desired food and one of the few important preservatives then known. According to Porphyry, all bees were the souls of nymphs (priestesses) who had been in the service of Aphrodite during their lifetimes, especially at her temple of Eryx where her symbol was a golden honeycomb. Priestesses of the goddess were called Melissae, "bees." At the Ephesian temple of Artemis, the Melissae were accompanied by eunuch priests known as Essenes, meaning "drones." The Goddess Demeter was also addressed as "The pure mother bee." A former matriarchal ruler of Israel was Deborah, whose name means "queen bee." The mother of Lemminkainen used magic honey to restore her son's life in the Kalevala, assisted by Mehilainen the Bee. Even the patriarchal Mithraic cult revered the Moon Goddess as maker of "the honey which was used in purification."

Bees are Hymenoptera, "veil-winged," recalling the hymen or veil that covered the inner shrine of the Goddess's temple, and the officiating nymph (high priestess) who bore the title of Hymen and ruled over marriage rituals and the honey-moon.

In folklore, bees were always identified with mortality. If bees left their hive, it was taken as a sign that the hive's owner would soon die. It was also considered important to "tell the bees" about a death in the family, so they would not fly away. In some sections of England it was customary to turn beehives around to face in the opposite direction when a corpse was being carried out of the house.

Infinity[Bearbeiten]

Our standard mathematical symbol of infinity came into the Western world by way of "arabic" numerals - whose real place of origin was India, not Arabia. In Indian religion this sign stood for infinity or completeness because it is composed of a clockwise circle and a counterclockwise circle. That is, a male, solar, right-hand half united with a female, lunar, left-hand half. Like the figure eight that it resembles, the infinity sign used to mean sexual union and the sense of perfection: two becoming one. Since neither circle lies above the other as in the figure eight, the infinity sign implies equality between male and female powers, leading to intimate knowledge of "the infinate."

Like the ying-and-yang symbol of dualism, the infinity sign was adapted to many concepts of twinning or pairing. Some said it was the mark of the twin gods known as Sons of the Mare (Asvins), born of the Goddess Saranyu who took the form of a mare like her Western counterpart, Demeter. The twin gods were famed as magicians, healers, horsemen, and fertility spirits.

Cowrie[Bearbeiten]

The cowrie shell is probably one of the world's first yonic symbols, its resemblance to female genitalia being almost impossible to miss. Its very name is thought to be derived from Kauri, a pre-Vedic version of the Goddess in India. The shell is still revered in India as magical jewlery for averting the evil eye. But the use of cowrie shells as rebirth symbols - representing the female Gate of Life - dates as far back as 20,000 B.C.

Cowries were used throughout the Middle East, Egypt, the South Pacific, and the Mediterranean countries as charms for healing, fertility, rebirth, magical power, or good luck. Romans called the shell Matriculus, the "little matrix," or "little womb." It was also known as porcella, meaning both "vulva" and "little sow." Our word porcelain derives from this, since it was originally likened to the shiny white surface of the cowrie shell.

Among the Greeks, the word Kteis meant a vulva, a cowrie shell, a scallop shell or a comb. Cowrie shell magic persisted well into the Christian era, despite persistent efforts not to see its obvious symbolism. Gypsy women continued to value cowries above any other kind of amulet as a focus for their own feminine powers. Christianized Sudanese accepted amulets made of strips of leather stamped with a cross, but regarded them as relatively useless unless decorated they were decorated with nine cowries.


Athene[Bearbeiten]

Sulfur used to be sacred to atheve as a goddess of healing and purification, when people believed that burning brimstone (sulfur) would drive away the spirits of disease. The element was named after her under the title of Brimo, virgin mother of the Holy Child Brimus. Alchemists therefore used the sign of Athene for sulfur, which they were always trying to combine with mercury in a 'marriage of Athene and Hermes,' believing this process could make gold. It never did.

Athene was much older than the city of Athens that finally adopted her as its patron. Her origin was not even Greek. She was the Libyan Triple Goddess, variously named Neith, Metis, Medusa, Anath, or Athenna; Egyptians said Athene was a title of Isis and it meant 'I have come from myself.' Athene's display of the Gorgon head on her aegis referred to her own Destroyer aspect. Her Crone self, Medusa-Metis, was twice mythologized as Perseus's petrifying monster and as Athene's mother, who was swallowed by Zeus in order that he might give birth to Athene from his own head. This male birth imitation was often cited to show that Athene recognized no mother and gave all her loyalty to her heavenly father; but its real meaning was that Athene was his Sophia, his wisdom, the guiding female spirit within his head.

The name of Athene's major temple, the Parthenon, means 'Virgin-house.' Athene was 'virgin' in the old sense: independant of male attachments, a spouse to none, a free agent. Yet, according to archaic traditions, she had lovers: Pan and Hephaestus, for example. Her sign represents female self-determination, freedom, and great skill in the civilized arts, of which she was supposed to have been humanity's primary teacher.

Sulfur

Sulfur was sacred to the Goddess Athene; therefore its alchemical symbol was the same as her sign. Sulfur was also called brimstone, after another of her manifestations, the Goddess Brimo (the angry aspect of Athene), who was also identified with Demeter. Because of its association with the Virgin Goddess of the Parthenon ('virgin house'), sulfur was widely regarded as an agent of purification. Sickrooms and demon haunted places were rendered pure by burning sulfur, possibly on the theory that anything with so bad a smell as burning sulfur, would be powerful medicine.

By the samne token, the bad tasting waters of natural sulfur springs were always considered great curatives. to this day, sick people make pilgrimages to sulfur springs to 'take the waters.' Up to a generation or so ago, children were regularly dosed with sulfur and molasses each year as a spring tonic, or 'blood purifier' The sulfur to do the purifying, the molasses to help mask the bad taste.


Labrys[Bearbeiten]

The labrys or double bladed ax stood for the Amazons and their Goddess under several of her classical names: Artemis, Gaea, Rhea, Demeter. Perhaps originally a battle ax, it became a ceremonial scepter in Crete and at the Goddess's oldest greek shrine, Delphi. Her priests adopted the name of Labryadae, "ax-bearers." The labrys became an attribute of Cretan kings in their labyrinth (house of the double ax) and was probably used in ritual slaughter of the sacred bulls.

The labrys also appearedin India, carried by the hand of Shiva. Egypt's god Ptah was also represented by an ax. So was a Mayan deity known as God of the Ax. Tantric Buddhists explained that the gods use axes as weapons against unbelievers. In Brittany, stone axes were built into chimneys, in the belief that they would avert the lightning that the pagan gods used to control. The theory behind this custom seems to have been that the lightning gods would be mollified by seeing that their ancient symbols were still used.

In modern times the labrys has been remembered for its Amazon associations, and has therefore been adaopted by lesbian women as theiramuletic symbol.


Corndolly[Bearbeiten]

The corn dolly was made not of corncobs but of grain stalks - wheat, barley, oats, or rye, collectively called 'corn' in Europe. The corn dolly was a traditional harvest figure made of the last sheaves of grain, or in some areas, the first sheaves of each years crop.She was dressed in appropriate clothing and treated in various ways as an embodiment of the harvest. Some folk left her in the field. Some brought her to the harvest dance and set her up in the center. Some placed her on a funeral pyre heaped with flowers and set fire to it. Some drenched her with water as a fertility charm. Some married her to a corn-man in a mock ceremony. Some hung her up in the farmhouse, until the next year's harvest. Some preserved her until Yule, when she was fed to the cattle 'to make them thrive all the year round.'

The corn dolly had many names. Among them were; Corn Mother, Harvest Mother, Great Mother, GrandMother, Mother of the Grain, Mother Sheaf, Old Woman, Old Wife, the Caillech, the Hag, the Queen, the Bride, the Maiden, the Ceres, and the Demeter.


Ceres[Bearbeiten]

Ceres was a Roman title of the Great Goddess as Mother of the Harvest and ruler of all grains, which are still called 'cereals' after her major early-summer festival, the Cerealia. Up to the nineteenth century in parts of the British isles, it was said that 'farmers go round their corn with burning torches, in memory of the Cerealia.' Probably related to the Greek Kore and the female spirits of fate called Keres, Mother Ceres was not only the fertile earth but also another form of Juno as Queen of Heaven. Her priestesses may have founded the Roman legal system back in the age of 'mother-right.' Their Goddess was entitled Ceres Legifera, 'Ceres the Lawgiver.'

The sign of Ceres was the lunar crescent and inverted, or underworld-entering, cross. (Saint Peter's Cross). The combination probably represented the sickle for cutting grain, as well as the hint of lunar seasonality and the planting of the (male) seed in the earth's womb. The rites of Ceres were originally Greek, probably based on tradition from the great temples of Demeter.

Sistrum[Bearbeiten]

The sistrum was a sacred rattle, used in the worship of the Egyptian Great Goddess (Isis, Nephthys, or Hathor). the sound of its clattering wires was said to dispel evil spirits, the same kind of magic later attributed to church bells in medieval Europe. It was decorated with various designs, sometimes a head of the Goddess, sometimes a small phallus representing her consort.

Egyptian paintings show the sistrum not only in the hand of the Goddess herself, but also in the hands of her priestesses and other high ranking women. Plutarch relates its many mystical meanings. The curved top stood for the orbit of the moon, presided over by a figure of the Goddess in her cat form. The four rattles represented the four elements whereby she created the universe. Their sound indicated mingling of the elements in the process of creation.

Chartsbox Nirvana[Bearbeiten]


Zahlen und Fakten (UK)[Bearbeiten]

Stand: 2001, Statistik von Soundscan & MTV - 1989 Bleach, 1.44 million copies - 1991 Nevermind 7.65 million - 1992 Incesticide 1.13 million - 1993's In Utero at 3.58 million - MTV Unplugged in New York 4.11 million 1996's From the Muddy Banks of the Wishkah 4.11 million & 1.15 million copies just in the US

You[Bearbeiten]

Willkommen![Bearbeiten]

Schön, dass du zu uns gestoßen bist. In Hilfe und FAQ kannst du dir einen Überblick über unsere Zusammenarbeit verschaffen. Lies dir bitte unbedingt zuerst das Tutorial und Wie schreibe ich gute Artikel durch. Bevor du neue Artikel anlegst, schaue, wie die existierenden Artikel aus demselben Themenbereich aufgebaut sind und vor allem: Recherchiere, recherchiere, recherchiere. Und wenn du dann mit dem Schreiben loslegst, gib bitte deine Quellen an.

Fragen stellst du am besten hier. Aber die meisten Wikipedianer und auch ich helfen dir gerne. Solltest du bestimmte Wörter oder Abkürzungen nicht auf Anhieb verstehen, schaue mal hier rein. Wenn du etwas ausprobieren willst, ist hier Platz dafür.

Wenn du Bilder hochladen möchtest, achte bitte auf die korrekte Lizensierung und schau mal, ob du dich nicht auch in Commons anmelden möchtest, um die Bilder dort zugleich auch den Schwesterprojekten zur Verfügung zu stellen.

Mein Tipp für deinen Einstieg in Wikipedia: Sei mutig, aber respektiere die Leistungen anderer User! ;-) Herzlich Willkommen! Sebastian Wilken talk 11:46, 8. Sep 2005 (CEST)

TO DO[Bearbeiten]

Songbedeutung[Bearbeiten]

"Radio Friendly Unit Shifter" was the opening song on most shows from late '93 and '94. Kurt described this song as a throw-away; a bunch of random lines of poetry thrown together. The title was a reference to ("Smells Like Teen Spirit" and its slick, radio-friendly sound.

Heart Shaped Box The lyrics manage to convey complex themes of love and entrapment, and deal with aspects of Kurt Cobain's relationship with Courtney Love and his addiction to her and heroin. According to Cobain's uncle by marriage, Larry Smith, the line: "Forever in debt to your priceless advice" was used by Cobain to piss off an aunt (Smith's sister) during arguments.

Rape Me: This song can be considered as Polly's response to her rapist. In Kurt's words, it's an anti-rape song. A sort of poetic justice, where a guy rapes a girl, ends up in jail, and gets raped there. The lyrics that were later added ('my favorite inside source...') are about the media's rape of the band.

Sever The Servants An autobiographical song about the whole Nirvana experience, the 'witch hunt' on Courtney Love, and a sarcastic response to the emphasis placed on the divorce of Kurt's parents. Through the lyrics Kurt delivers a very straightforward message to his father Don Cobain: I tried hard to have a father / but instead I had a dad / I just want you to know that I / don't hate you anymore / There is nothing I could say / that I haven't thought before. Kurt has explained that he just wanted to give his dad the message that he didn't hate him anymore.

Tourrette´s The title of this song is a reference to a mental disorder called Tourette's syndrome, in which the individual with the disease makes involuntary movements and verbalizations (often obscene), as well as having compulsive rituals or behaviors. Listening to Kurt Cobain's vocals on this song one begins to understand why he titled the song "tourette's."

During the 1992 Reading Festival, the band jokingly introduced the song as "The Eagle Has Landed." Bootleggers missed the joke and when the song made its way to commercial bootlegs the (intentionally) incorrect title was used.

"Also notice that the 9/10/92 setlist includes the title 'New Poopie' in place of 'tourette's,' solving yet another title mystery." Kris Sproul The Nirvana Live Guide

Nirvana Musikbeispiele[Bearbeiten]

Hallo Autohorst,

mit den Ausflügen in die Musiktheorie (Tonika, Doppeldominante) bei "In Bloom" muss ich dir recht geben. Das gehört vielleicht echt nicht rein. Die Beispiele für den Wechsel Laut-Leise (Lithium) und den beweglichen Bass (Lounge Act) haben allerdings nur im Artikel schon vorher (d.h. nicht von mir) beschriebene musikalische Merkmale illustriert. Sie haben nur vorher vorhandenes ausgebaut. Du meinst, es solle eher eine Einordnung für den, der Nirvanas Musik nicht kennt erfolgen. Da sind ein paar Sachen zu Hören doch sehr hilfreich. Insofern verstehe ich deine Argumentation hier nicht ganz. Bin aber auch nicht beleidigt, wenn die Beispiele nicht mehr im Artikel sind. Gruß Boris Fernbacher 05:43, 5. Okt 2005 (CEST)


XXX[Bearbeiten]

Die bis zur zwei Minuten langen Fernsehspots zeigen Prominente vor landschaftlichen und urbanen Hintergründen. Diese tragen Sinnsprüche und Metaphern vor, die mit Metaphern und Sinnsprüchen ("Du bist der Baum") betonen, dass jeder einzelne auf seine Weise sowie auf emotionaler Ebene Teil "eines größeren Ganzen" sei. Hiermit wird impliziert, dass jeder Bürger am Erfolg Deutschlands teilhabe. Die Musik des Spots ist bekannt aus dem US-amerikanischen Spielfilm Forrest Gump (1994) und stammt vom US-amerikanischen Komponisten von Filmmusiken, Alan Silvestri.


DBD[Bearbeiten]

Benutzer:Auto-horst/Verbesserungsvorschläge/Du_bist_Deutschland

Ich denke, wegen der IP ist keine Seitensperrung angebracht. Wenn die alte Version ein allgemeiner Kompromiss war, kann man ja einfach fleissig reverten, bis es der IP zu blöd wird, und falls es dann wirklich ausartet, kann man immer noch sperren. Oder die Sache vor den Wikipedia:Vermittlungsausschuss bringen.
Gruss,
--Zumbo 21:45, 31. Okt 2005 (CET)

Was wird denn das? Bitte keine Doppeleinträge erstellen! Hadhuey 01:21, 22. Dez 2005 (CET)

I Can't Relax In Deutschland[Bearbeiten]

Also bei Kritik erwahrt ich zumindest eigentlich mehr, das ist eher Lästern. --ChristianErtl 01:05, 25. Okt 2005 (CEST)

Seiten verschieben[Bearbeiten]

Hallo Auto-horst, wenn du ein Lemma ändern möchtest, dann nutze bitte die "Verschieben"-Funktion. Den von dir per copy&paste "neu" erstellten Artikel Du bist Deutschland (Kampagne) habe ich gelöscht, da die komplette Versionsgeschichte durch solche Aktionen verloren geht und das engtgegen unserer Lizenz ist. --Dundak 01:23, 22. Dez 2005 (CET)

Hallo Auto-horst, von welchen Links sprichst du? Hast du sie schon auf der Artikeldiskussion erwähnt? Ich weiß nicht, warum dieser Artikel zur Zeit gesperrt ist. Gruß --Dundak 01:29, 22. Dez 2005 (CET)

CI-Link bei MIA.[Bearbeiten]

Gehört dieser Link zur Begründung der Konzertabsage vom Conne Island da wirklich hin? Wenn es eine reine Stellungnahme wäre sicherlich, aber der Text schießt ziemlich über das Ziel hinaus. Prinzipiell spricht nichts dagegen, das CI zu nennen und auch den Standpunkt der dort Verantwortlichen anzuführen, zumal ich Vieles darin durchaus nachvollziehen kann, aber dieser doch, bei objektiver Betrachtung einseitig argumentierende und nicht allzu aktuelle Text macht mir hier dann doch irgendwo Sorgen... --80.136.75.124 12:57, 23. Jan 2006 (CET)

Naja, wie ich das über das Netz einschätzen kann, ist das die Art und Weise, wie sich der Club über Bands auseinandersetzt. Daran lässt sich von hier schlecht was ändern. Daher finde ich auch ,dass der Link da ruhig bleiben könnte.
Ob das so die Begründung ist... Aber gut, vertrauen wir auf Wikipedia als demokratische Institution. Wenn der Link da nicht hingehört, wird er irgendwann schon verschwinden. Ich mach da erst mal nichts weiter dran. --80.136.94.79 11:15, 24. Jan 2006 (CET)

Foo Fighters[Bearbeiten]

Servus,
les dir bitte folgenden von Nebensätzen und Adverbialen (oder was auch immer) befreiten Satz durch: Grohl stellte noch im gleichen Jahr eine Band zusammen, die zunächst aus Pat Smear sowie der Sunny Day Real Estate-Rhythmussektion, bestehend aus Nate Mendel und William Goldsmith.

Sollen wir darüber wirklich einen edit-war führen oder darf ich (bzw. willst du) das wieder korrigieren?

Freundlichst,
--KellyClarkson4ever 23:23, 29. Jan 2006 (CET)

ooops. danke für die info. tomaten on eyes :O

Nirvana Revert[Bearbeiten]

Hi, warum willst Du die Fehler unbedingt drinlassen?

--TammoSeppelt 19:15, 4. Feb 2006 (CET)

Blackliste[Bearbeiten]

Hallo Auto-horst, sorry für die verspätete Antwort. Vorschläge für die Blacklist kann man unter meta:Talk:Spam blacklist einreichen. Allerdings sollte man dort keine Links eintragen, die nur eine kleine Zahl von Artikeln betreffen. (Die Liste gilt für alle Wikimedia-Projekte und verbraucht auch Serverleistung.) – In Bleach (Album) oder Nevermind scheint es nun wieder ruhig zu sein; vielleicht hat er's wieder aufgegeben. Bei Problemen mit mutmaßlichem Spam kannst du dich an WP:VS wenden und dort eine Sperrung des Benutzers bzw. der Artikel beantragen. Grüße -- kh80 •?!• 16:44, 21. Apr 2006 (CEST)

Bleach (Album)[Bearbeiten]

Hallo Horst, warum hast du den Artikel wieder auf die veraltete Rechtschreibung umgestellt? --Ephraim33 18:14, 30. Apr 2006 (CEST)

IP-sperrung nirvana[Bearbeiten]

die letze ip-bearbeitung ist vier wochen her. eine sperre scheint mir deshalb nicht erforderlich.--poupou l'quourouce 11:44, 4. Mai 2006 (CEST)

Emo[Bearbeiten]

Emo als Abkürzung für Emotional ist sowohl eine musikalische Ausdrucksform als auch eine Modeerscheinung. Seine Anhänger werden Emos genannt und stellen die erste Jugendbewegung im 21. Jahrhundert dar. Ihre Wurzeln sind in politisch motivierten Kreisen begründet. Nachdenkliche gefühlsbetonte und oftmals traurige Ausdrucksweisen zeichnen Emo aus.


Definition[Bearbeiten]

Emo wird heute als Genre wahrgenommen, obwohl es ich einst lediglich als inhaltliche Neupositionierung zahlreicher Hardcore- und Punkanhänger und nicht als neue Musikrichtung verstand. Als musikalische Spielart ist es nämlich nur schwer von anderen Richtungen zu unterscheiden, da in der Regel jeder Musiker einen emotionalen Bezug zu seiner Musik und seinen Texten proklamiert. Da mit politischen Inhalten und musikalischen Ausdrucksformen auch ein optisches Erscheinungsbild einher ging, adaptierte die breitere Öffentlichkeit den Begriff zügig und machte ihn zur Mode. Anders als im Grunge konnte sich im Emo kaum Bands aus dem Underground durchsetzen, wodurch inhaltliche Substanz und optisch-akustischer Ausdruck schnell von einander entkoppelt wurden. Künstler, die heute für Emo stehen haben mit den Ursprüngen kaum noch etwas zu tun. Gestützt durch eine massenwirksame Modewelle verlor die ursprüngliche Emo-Bewegung auch zunehmends an Abgrenzungskraft, so dass eher der Begriff als solcher als seine einstigen Inhalte zur Identifikationsstiftung einer ganzen Generation auszureichen schienen.


Entstehung[Bearbeiten]

Punk und besonders Hardcore kamen Ende der 90er Jahre in eine Phase der Stagnation. Zahlreiche Begründer wandten sich seit Beginn der Mediatisierung der einstigen Undergroundbewegungen seit Mitte der 90er Jahre davon ab. Beide popkulturellen Ausdrucksformen kamen an einen Punkt der Stagnation. Während Punk am ihn ausmachenden rebellischen Gestus verlor und eine bloße Spielart des Rock wurde, kam es im Hardcore zur Angleichung mit Heavy Metal, dessen Konzeption in der Demonstration von Härte und Männlichkeit endete. Es kam zu einer Diskussion politisch motivierter Kulturschaffender, die feststellte:

„In der Rückschau [...] scheint [...] diese pathologische Konzeption von Männlichkeit das Hauptproblem einer Hardcore-Szene gewesen zu sein, die sich darin nicht im geringsten von der patriarchalen Mehrheitsgesellschaft unterschied. Kulturreport, Cee Ihh Ausgabe 145 im September 2007“



Gefühlen wie Verzweiflung und Trauer sowie durch die Beschäftigung mit persönlichen Themen wie Liebe und Freundschaft auszeichnet. Emo auch schnell zur Modeerscheinung und Generell gestaltet sich die Definition von Emo schwierig, weil die Genre-Bestimmung und die daraus resultierende musikalische Einteilung innerhalb der Hardcore/Punk-Szene – zumindest in den Anfangstagen – nicht in diesem Maße vorhanden war. Viele sehen den Begriff – ähnlich wie beim Grunge – als einen von außen hineingetragenen Musikbegriff für eine Art von Musik, die so gar nicht abgrenzbar ist.

Guy Picciotto, der unter anderem in der Band Rites of Spring spielte, sagte dazu in einem Interview:

I’ve never recognized ‚emo‘ as a genre of music. I always thought it was the most retarded term ever. I know there is this generic commonplace that every band that gets labeled with that term hates it. They feel scandalized by it. But honestly, I just thought that all the bands I played in were punk rock bands. The reason I think it’s so stupid is that – what, like the Bad Brains weren’t emotional? What – they were robots or something? It just doesn’t make any sense to me.[1]

(Auf Deutsch etwa: „Für mich war ‚Emo‘ nie ein Musikgenre. Ich hielt es für den dümmsten Begriff überhaupt. Es gibt diese Binsenweisheit, dass alle Bands, die als Emo bezeichnet werden, den Begriff hassen, sie fühlen sich stigmatisiert. Ehrlich gesagt dachte ich, all die Bands in denen ich spielte seien Punkrockbands. Emo halte ich für einen dämlichen Begriff, schließlich spielen auch Bands wie die Bad Brains emotionale Musik, das sind ja schließlich keine Roboter oder sowas. Es ergibt schlicht keinen Sinn.“)

Entstehung[Bearbeiten]

Als Ursprung von Emo gilt die so genannte Washington-D.-C.-Hardcore-Punk-„Schule“, die neben den Westcoast-Gruppen und später dem New York Hardcore (NYHC) als die wichtigste und stilbildendste in der Hardcore-Bewegung gilt. Bands wie Minor Threat, Government Issue oder auch die frühen Bad Brains prägten den Hardcore-Punk aus Washington. Schon Anfang der 1980er Jahre suchten einige Musiker innerhalb der Hardcore/Punk-Szene Wege, um eine Antwort auf die zunehmende Härte und den Machismo – also Umgangsformen, die nicht viel mit den Hardcore-Idealen zu tun haben – von Teilen innerhalb der Hardcore-Szene zu finden.

Die Pionierband des Genres, Fugazi, live 2002

Stattdessen wollten sie offen Emotionen und Gefühle zeigen und dies auch in ihren Songs verarbeiten – und dies ist trotz aller fortschrittlicher Gedanken im Hardcore – in der damaligen rauen, eher pessimistisch denkenden, Hardcore-Szene schon ein wenig verpönt. So gründete Ex-Minor Threat-Sänger Ian MacKaye nach der Auflösung der Band zusammen mit Guy Picciotto und Anderen die Band Rites of Spring, die als Wegbereiter des Emos gilt. Vorher hatte schon die Washingtoner Band Hüsker Dü, die neben vielen anderen Hardcore-verwandten Subgenres auch zu den ersten Emo-Bands gehörten, emotionale Passagen in ihre Lieder eingebaut und Liebe und Verzweiflung thematisiert. Nachdem Rites of Spring aufgelöst wurde, formierten sich wenig später die Bands Embrace und Fugazi, die beide zu den wichtigsten Bands im Emo und Post-Hardcore-Bereich zählen. Nach einiger Zeit entstanden auch in anderen Hardcore-Zentren Emo-Bands, so vor allem an der Westküste, später auch an der Ostküste, vor allem auch rund um New York City.

Emo und Indierock[Bearbeiten]

In den 1990er Jahren wurde der Begriff Emo zunehmend auch für einige Bands verwendet, die stärkere Einflüsse aus dem Bereich des Indierock in ihre Musik integrierten. Emo wurde zum Ende der Achtziger immer experimenteller und nahm immer mehr Merkmale des auch aus Hardcore/Punk-Kreisen entstanden Indierocks auf. Als Startpunkt dieser Entwicklung wird oft das Album Diary von Sunny Day Real Estate aus dem Jahr 1994 gesehen.

Steve Huey (All Music Guide) beschrieb die Band und das Album wie folgt:

Diary, virtually defined emo in the 90s. Diary was the album that made emo accessible, fusing its gnarled guitars and nakedly emotional vocals with more than a hint of melodic Seattle grunge.[2]

Weitere Bands, die den Indierock-lastigen Emo prägten bzw. prägen sind vor allem auch The Get Up Kids, Texas is the Reason, The Promise Ring.

Stil[Bearbeiten]

Generell ist eine stilistische Beschreibung von Emo wegen der großen Differenzierung innerhalb, gerade auch mit Blick auf die eher vom Indierock geprägten Emobands, schwierig. Das Hauptaugenmerk liegt deshalb auf dem klassischen „emotional Hardcore“.

Musikalisch gesehen handelt es sich bei Emo im weitesten Sinne um eine Form von Post-Hardcore, jedoch deckt der Begriff aber längst nicht alle Möglichkeiten des Subgenres mit ab. Die Unterscheidung zwischen „nur“ Post-Hardcore-Bands und Bands, die auch dem Genre Emo zugeschrieben werden ist deshalb teilweise schwierig. Ursprünglich basierte Emo auf dem typischen Mid-Tempo Washington D. C. Hardcore-Punk-Sound. Ein punkiges Schlagzeug traf damals auf laute verzerrte Gitarren, wobei sich wildere und schnellere Parts mit langsameren Abwechselten. Gesanglich prägte vor allem der Gesang von Ian MacKaye, der zwischen leisen Melodien und emotionalen Schreien wechselte, den Sound von Emo.

Musikalisch gesehene Besonderheiten des heutigen Emos sind – wie beim Post-Hardcore oft üblich – die Wechsel im Gesang (Clean und Schreien), im Tempo und der Lautstärke, sowie die auch hier meldiöseren und komplizierten Riffs der Gitarren. Anders als beim normalen Post-Hardcore sind die noch experimentierfreudigere Songstruktur, der stärkere Einbau von langsamen Textstellen und Liedern, die Eindeutig zum großen Teil stark emotionalen Texte, in denen es eher um Liebe, Trauer, Verzweiflung aber auch oft andere Alltagsprobleme geht, weniger sind politische Themen vorhanden. Experimentell werden oft auch Synthies und Keyboards verwendet.

Aktuellere musikalische Beispiele[Bearbeiten]

Nathan Gray, Frontmann der Post-Hardcore- und Emoband boysetsfire.

Die Band gehört zu den kommerziell erfolgreichsten Emo-Bands, erfährt aber auch wegen der unkritischen Haltung zu ihrem eigenen Erfolg und wegen dem tendenziellen Einbau von Pop-Punk-Elementen in ihre Musik Kritik. In ihren Songs beschäftigen sie sich stark mit Alltagsproblemen, rund um Liebe und Freundschaft, wobei sich die Probleme eher an denen von Teenagern orientieren. Musikalisch wechseln sie zwischen emotionalen stark (Pop-) punklastigen Stücken und Songs mit kürzeren Moshparts, in dem sich melodiösere Gitarrenriffs und Harmonien mit Schreieinlagen abwechseln.

boysetsfire gehörten zu den erfolgreichsten und bekanntesten, trotzdem aber auch zu den politisch am aktivsten auftretenden Emo-Bands in den neunziger Jahren. Thematisch wechseln die Themen ihrer Lieder zwischen Alltagsproblemen wie Tod von geliebten Menschen und unerfüllter Liebe und (links-)politischen Aussagen und Bekundungen. Der Wechsel zwischen Laut und Leise bzw. zwischen rau und melodiös findet bei der Band eher zwischen verschiedenen Liedern statt. So wechseln sich raue, harte – teilweise ein bisschen am „new school“-Hardcore orientierte – Songs mit melodiöseren Mid-Tempo-Nummern ab.

Screamo[Bearbeiten]

Hauptartikel: Screamo

Screamo ist das einzige wirkliche Emo-Subgenre. Frei übersetzt bedeutet es „Schrei-Emo“ und ist eine Art extreme Form des Emos.

Entstanden sind die meisten Screamo-Bands Ende der Achtziger bzw. Anfang der Neuziger Jahre. Im gewissen Sinne lässt dies die Vermutung zu, dass die Entwicklung von Screamo eine, sich auf die Hardcore-Wurzeln berufende, Reaktion auf den stark vom Indierock beeinflussten Emo darstellt.

Als Ursprungsorte gelten vor allem die anderen beiden großen Hardcore-Schulen – die Westküste um Kalifornien und New York/New Jersey. Als wichtigste Vertreter des Genres wären hier Orchid, Envy, Yage und Funeral Diner zu nennen.

Musikalisch gesehen nimmt das Schreien (sehr selten auch Brüllen) von Emotionen und emotionalen Texten die Leadfunktion des Sängers ein. Zwischendurch gibt es clean – oft übertrieben emotional – gesungene und gesprochene Parts. Im Gegensatz zum „normalen“ Emo, bei dem das Verhältnis eher zum cleanem denn zum geschrieenen Gesang tendiert ist dies beim Screamo eindeutig entgegengesetzt. Die Songs wirken oft chaotisch, wobei eine klare Songstruktur mit Refrain, Strophe etc. kaum zu erkennen ist. Dabei lässt sich eine gewisse Verwandtschaft zum Grindcore erkennen.

Politik, Straight Edge und D.I.Y. (Do it yourself)[Bearbeiten]

Schon am Anfang waren Emo-Bands einstellungsmäßig fest verankert in der Hardcore-Punk- und Punk-Szene.

Obwohl gerade auch im Emo-Bereich viele Bands Verträge bei Major-Labeln angenommen haben, unkritisch Merchandise verkaufen und damit ihren Labels beträchtliche Einnahmen bescheren, ist der „Do it yourself“-Gedanke (D.I.Y.) grundsätzlich vorhanden und wird von vielen auch gelebt und umgesetzt. Gerade auch im Screamo-Bereich veröffentlichen kleine, unabhängige Labels Alben in kleinen Stückzahlen.

Viele Emo-Bands sind auch Straight Edge-Bands, bzw. viele Bandmitglieder leben nach diesen Gedanken. Dazu zählen zum Beispiel Policy of 3 und boysetsfire.[3]

Die Emoband Silverstein engagiert sich bei PETA

Andere Einstellungen und Meinungen, die beim Hardcore-Punk üblich sind, wie etwa Veganismus, die Beschäftigung mit Tierrecht/Antispezizismus und Tierbefreiung werden auch von Emo-Bands gelebt und aktiv propagiert. So beteiligt sich etwa die kanadische Emo-Band Silverstein an Kampagnen der Tierrechtsorganisation PETA.[4]

Einige Bands sind auch explizit politisch, auch wenn sie ihre Musik nicht als unbedingte Plattform für ihre politischen Meinungen sehen. So gehört etwa die Post-Hardcore/Emo-Band boysetsfire zu den wenigen eher kommunistisch orientierten Bands[5] im sonst eher auch links, aber eher anarchistisch geprägten Hardcore-Punk.

Obgleich die von Hardcore-Punk bekannten Einstellungen und die Moral bei vielen Emo-Bands weniger stark ausgeprägt sind – gerade bei stark kommerziell ausgerichteten und wenig in der Hardcore-Punk-Szene verankerten Bands – sind die Hardcore-Punk-Ideale doch verbreitet.

Labels[Bearbeiten]

Wie schon erwähnt, ist der D.I.Y-Gedanke auch bei vielen Emobands vorhanden und so gibt es viele kleinere unabhängige Labels. Vor allem auch größere Independent-Labels, die auch andere Genreverwandte Musik wie Hardcore-Punk, Punkrock oder Metalcore/Metal unter Vertrag haben, gehören zu den wichtigsten Veröffentlichern im Emo-Bereich. So zum Beispiel:

Literatur[Bearbeiten]

  • Steve Emond: Emo Boy Volume 1: Nobody Cares about Anything Anyway, So Why Don't We All Just Die?: Nobody Cares About Anything Anyway, So Why Don't We All Just Die? (2006); Slave Labor Books, ISBN 978-1593620530 (englisch)
  • Andy Greenwald: Nothing Feels Good: Punk Rock, Teenagers, and Emo (2003); St. Martin's Griffin, ISBN 978-0312308636 (englisch)

Weblinks[Bearbeiten]

Quellen[Bearbeiten]

  1. www.markprindle.com: Guy Picciotto – 2003, Zugriff: 12. Juli 2007
  2. www.allmusic.com: Review, Zugriff: 12. Juli 2007
  3. Quelle: [1] unter "Emocore & Straight Edge"; Zugriff am 14.07.2007
  4. The Silverstein boys have a whole lot to say about the meat industry, taking care of your singing voice, life on the road, and (if you’re feeling up to it) how to change the world …, [2], Zugriff am 14. Juli 2007
  5. Zitat: „Boy Sets Fire steht auch ein bisschen für kommunistische Ansichten in der Hardcore-Szene. […]“, [3]; Zugriff am 14.Juli 2007

Pause[Bearbeiten]

Eine Woche Pause für dich. Das Anlegen des AP war ein massiver Verstoß gegen diese Richtlinie. Dein Jargon ("(Anführer)" usw.) spricht im übrigen dafür, dass du einige Dinge in der Wikipedia nicht verstanden hast. Sollte sich dieses Verhalten fortsetzen, wird die Sperre beim nächsten Mal unbegrenzt sein. --Thogo BüroSofa 20:46, 21. Feb. 2008 (CET)

    • Wer bist du denn? Detscho.

Schnelllöschung deines Eintrags „Hassmaske“[Bearbeiten]

Hallo, du hast den Artikel „Hassmaske“ eingestellt, der nach unseren Vereinbarungen über Schnelllöschungen zur Löschung vorgeschlagen wurde.

Im Rahmen einer Enzyklopädie gibt es gewisse Anforderungen, die Textbeiträge erfüllen sollten. Auf deinen Textbeitrag treffen die folgenden Punkte zu:

Was nun?

Stelle nicht erneut deinen Textbeitrag oder einen Protest gegen die Löschung ein. Täglich werden hunderte von Neueinträgen im Rahmen der Eingangskontrolle gelöscht. Dabei sind Fehler natürlich nicht auszuschließen. Bitte prüfe aber zunächst deinen Text kritisch nach den oben genannten Punkten. Schaue dann ins allgemeine Lösch-Logbuch, ins Löschlog des Artikels, zu dem dir ein Link nach der Löschung angezeigt wird, und frage erst danach bei Unklarheiten den löschenden Administrator nach dem genauen Grund, bzw. bitte um Wiederherstellung.

Alternativ kannst du deinen Artikel als angemeldeter Benutzer auch in deinem Benutzernamensraum soweit vorbereiten, dass er unseren Kriterien entspricht. -- XenonX3 - (:±) 01:05, 30. Nov. 2009 (CET)

Problem mit deiner Datei[Bearbeiten]

Hallo Auto-horst,

Bei der folgenden von dir hochgeladenen Datei gibt es noch ein Problem:

  • Lizenz: Eine Lizenz ist die Erlaubnis, eine Datei unter bestimmten Bedingungen zu nutzen. In der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia werden nur solche Dateien akzeptiert, die unter den hier gelisteten Lizenzen stehen. Wenn du der Urheber der Datei bist, solltest du eine solche Vorlage deiner Wahl in die Dateibeschreibungsseite einfügen.

Durch Klicken auf „Seite bearbeiten“ auf der Dateibeschreibungsseite kannst du die fehlenden Angaben nachtragen. Wenn das Problem nicht innerhalb von 14 Tagen behoben wird, muss die Datei leider gelöscht werden.

Fragen beantwortet dir möglicherweise die Bilder-FAQ. Du kannst aber auch gern hier antworten, damit dir individuell geholfen wird.

Vielen Dank für deine Unterstützung,-- BLUbot 06:05, 30. Mär. 2010 (CEST)

- done --Auto-horst 01:58, 31. Mär. 2010 (CEST)

Probleme mit deiner Datei (29.04.2012)[Bearbeiten]

Hallo Auto-horst,

Bei der folgenden von dir hochgeladenen Datei gibt es noch Probleme:

  1. Datei:Adolar 07032011 Maarwegstudio.jpg - Probleme: Lizenz, Freigabe
  • Freigabe: Du brauchst eine Erlaubnis, wenn du eine urheberrechtlich geschützte Datei hochlädst, die von einer anderen Person geschaffen wurde. Bitte den Urheber der Datei um eine solche Erlaubnis wie hier beschrieben.
  • Lizenz: Eine Lizenz ist die Erlaubnis, eine Datei unter bestimmten Bedingungen zu nutzen. In der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia werden nur solche Dateien akzeptiert, die unter den hier gelisteten Lizenzen stehen. Wenn du der Urheber der Datei bist, solltest du eine solche Vorlage deiner Wahl in die Dateibeschreibungsseite einfügen.

Durch Klicken auf „Bearbeiten“ oben auf der Dateibeschreibungsseite kannst du die fehlenden Angaben nachtragen. Wenn die Probleme nicht innerhalb von 14 Tagen behoben werden, muss die Datei leider gelöscht werden.

Fragen beantwortet dir möglicherweise die Bilder-FAQ. Du kannst aber auch gern hier antworten, damit dir individuell geholfen wird.

Vielen Dank für deine Unterstützung, Xqbot (Diskussion) 09:37, 29. Apr. 2012 (CEST)