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Vorlage:Importartikel/Wartung-2015-11

Cccefalon/Werkstatt/20-point agreement
Agreement Relating to Malaysia in English texts (document)
Malaysia Act 1963 (document)

20-point agreement oder 20-point memorandum ist eine Liste von 20 Punkten, mit dem der frühere Staat North Borneo im Verlauf der Verhandlungen zur Gründung von Malaysia die Bedingungen für seinen Anschluss als Bundesstaat Sabah an die Föderation Malaya niederlegte. It accomplished through the enactment of the Malaysia Act (1963), clause 1(1) of which states that on Malaysia Day, Her Majesty’s sovereignty and jurisdiction in respect of the new states shall be relinquished so as to vest in the manner agreed,[1] on 16 September 1963.[2][3] In the Malaysia Bill of the Malaysia Agreement some of the twenty points were incorporated, to varying degrees, into what became the Constitution of Malaysia; others were merely accepted orally, thus not gaining legal status. That act often serves as a focal point amongst those who argue that Sabah's rights within the Federation have been eroded over time.[4] Conversely, it can be also contended that the provision under the 20-point agreement which had been tabled under the Malaysia Bill is now rendered to be null and void following the expulsion of Singapore from Malaysia in 1965.Vorlage:Who Vorlage:Citation needed

Geschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

From the international law perspective, moves were already afoot to turn decolonization into a major international issue. On 14 December 1960, the United Nations General Assembly had adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples – the famous Resolution 1514[5] – with 89 votes in favour and only 9 abstentions.[6] Article 5 of Resolution 1514, states: Immediate steps shall be taken, in Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories or all other territories which have not yet attained independence, to transfer all powers to the peoples of those territories, without any conditions or reservations, in accordance with their freely expressed will and desire, without any distinction as to race, creed or colour, in order to enable them to enjoy complete independence and freedom, moreover, Article 3 provided that [i]nadequacy of political, economic, social or educational preparedness should never serve as a pretext for delaying independence.’ To monitor the implementation of Resolution 1514, the General Assembly created the Special Committee on the Situation With Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (referred to popularly as the UN Committee on Colonialism) in 1961. Even though Great Britain abstained from voting on Resolution 1514, pressure on her to decolonize was palpable. Not only did this pressure come from the international community, it came from its strongestally, the United States of America who extracted this concession from the British in the Atlantic Charter.[7]

Under an agreement signed between Great Britain and the Federation of Malaya, the issue of self-determination with respect to the peoples of North Borneo and Sarawak, formed the bedrock of yet another challenge to the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. A Joint Statement issued by the British and Malayan Federal Governments on 23 November 1961, clause 4 provided: Before coming to any final decision it is necessary to ascertain the views of the peoples of North Borneo and Sarawak to supported the proposal to create the new federation with Malaya and Singapore. It has accordingly been decided to set up a Commission to carry out this task and to make recommendations.

In the spirit of ensuring that decolonization was carried in accordance with the wishes of the peoples of Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo, the British Government, working with the Federation of Malaya Government, appointed a Commission of Enquiry for North Borneo and Sarawak in January 1962 to determine if the people supported the proposal to create a Federation of Malaysia. The five-man team, which comprised two Malayans and three British representatives, was headed by Lord Cameron Cobbold.[8] and The Lansdowne Committee, an inter-governmental committee was appointed to work out the details of the final of the Malaysia Agreement of opinion in North Borneo and Sarawak by Lord Lansdowne served for Britain and Tun Abdul Razak, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya served for Malaya.[9]

Die 20 points wurden mit der Absicht verfasst, die Interessen, Rechte und die Autonomie der Einwohner Sabahs bei der Bildung der malaysischen Föderation zu wahren. Ein ähnlicher Vorschlag mit inhaltlichen Unterschieden wurde von Sarawak eingebracht und wird als 18-point agreement ("18-Punkte-Vereinbarung") bezeichnet.

Diese Memoranda werden auch heute noch häufig von denjenigen zitiert, die der Auffassung sind, dass die darin festgelegten Prinzipien nach dem Anschluß an die Föderation nicht mehr konsequent eingehalten wurden. Zahlreiche Rufe nach einer Überarbeitung der 20 Punkte unter Berücksichtigung der sozialen, ökonomischen und politischen Änderungen der letzten Jahrzehnte wurden bereits laut.[10]

Zeitleiste relevanter Ereignisse (1961-1963)[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

The Report of the Inter-Governmental Committee. On August 1st, 1962

to enlarge his voiced out of the idea at the UMNO conference in 1955.[11]

  • 27 May 1961
    Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaya at a dinner gathering for South East Asian journalists in Singapore held a press conference to announce his proposal to form the formation of Malaysia, comprising Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo.[12]
  • 23 August 1961
    An official meeting was held between Singapore and Federation of Malaya was discussing Singapore autonomy.
  • 23 November 1961
    a Joint Statement issued by the British and Malayan Federal Governments under clause 4 provided that before coming to any final decision it is necessary to ascertain the views of the peoples of North Borneo, and Sarawak to supported the proposal to create a new federation greater than the Federation of Malaya — Greater Malaysia.[13]
  • 17 January 1962
    The Commission of Enquiry (Cobbold Commission) was announced to observe the views of the people of Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo.[12]
  • 21 March 1962
    At a meeting of the Greater Malaysia Committee there was with an initial Malaysia proposal to the Borneo States namely, North Borneo, and the State of Singapore by The Commission of Enquiry (Cobbold Commission) was headed by Lord Cameron Cobbold and The Lansdowne Committee, an inter-governmental committee was appointed to work out the details of the final of the Malaysia Agreement of opinion in North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore by Lord Lansdowne served for Britain and Tun Abdul Razak, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya served for Malaya.[9] An agreement that it would be preferable to wait for the both which had been tasked with assessment of support for the proposal in North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore to complete its report, in order to consider its findings before a decision was made on the federation with Malaya.
  • 21. Juni 1962
    Der Cobbold Report wurde fertiggestellt und als vertrauliches Dokument den Premierministern von Großbritannien und Malaya übergeben. Der Bericht stellte fest, dass ein Drittel die Idee vollständig unterstützen, ein weiteres Drittel war unter der Voraussetzung, dass The report concluded that one third fully supported the idea, one third were in favour provided that safeguards were included, and the remaining one third were divided between those who would prefer North Borneo and Sarawak to gain independence prior to the merger and those who rejected the merger outright. The Commission's view was - firm support for a federated Malaysia (with transfer of sovereignty within twelve months), incorporating a transitional arrangement in which the British would remain for the first few years.[14]
  • 31. Juli 1962
    Die Britische und Malaiische Regierung entscheiden, dass die vorgeschlagene Föderation vom Grundsatz her zum 31. August 1963 verwirklicht werden soll. Ein Gremium der beiden Regierungen, das Inter-Governmental Committee (IGC) sollte die Arbeit an der Ausgestaltung der zukünftigen Verfassung übernehmen.[15]
  • 1 August 1962
    The Commission of Enquiry (Cobbold Commission) survey results that more than 70% of people of North Borneo in favour.
    The Lansdowne Report was published to all parties. Reportedly, this came as a surprise to North Borneo.
  • 13 – 14 August 1962
    Donald Stephens convened a meeting of political leaders (leading representatives of UNKO, USNO, the Democratic and United Parties and UNPMO[16], who drew up a 14 point (later extended to 20 point) memorandum of minimum demands. This memorandum was signed by three representatives of each of the 5 parties, and was presented to Lord Lansdowne and Tun Razak when they visited North Borneo. This demand gained support from Sarawak.[17]
  • 1. September 1962
    Singapore National Referendum to decide on the island's position within the Malaysia. (Option A received the majority of the vote at 71.1%, a degree of autonomy and state power, such as over labour and education and to keep their language policies)[18]
  • 12 & 26 September 1962 (respectively)
    North Borneo and Sarawak legislative council agreed to the formation of Malaysia (A report by Senu Abdul Rahman stated that indigenous people of North Borneo wanted freedom from British — who were of Malay stock voiced support).[19]on condition that state rights were safeguarded.[20]
Datei:Brunei to Keep Its Riches (The Straits Times, 3 February 1963, p. 1).png
The Straits Times, 3 February 1963 - BRUNEI to KEEP ITS RICHES "SULTAN SATISFIED".

At the least the Malaysian Constitution be based on the Malaya Constitution[28] declaring that the position of Islam being the religion of the Malaysia, protection for the powers of Malay rulers, while the term of citizenship on the basis of jus soli was repealed in favour for special rights for the Malays and more stringent conditions for citizenship for non-Malays. And, on 27 April 1965 Lee Kuan Yew forms a United Opposition Front with the aim to fight for equal rights — Malaysia for Malaysians campaign started [29] then Singapore cease to be a state of Malaysia on 9 August 1965 become an independent state.[30]

Die 20 Punkte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Punkt 1: Religion[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Da keine Einwände gegen den Islam als Staatsreligion von Malaysia gelten gemacht werden, sollte es keine Staatsreligion in Nordborneo geben und die Bestimmungen in der derzeitigen Verfassung von Malaya hinsichtlich des Islams sollten nicht auf Nordborneo angewandt werden.<[31]

Punkt 2: Sprache[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

  • a. Die Landessprache der Föderation sollte Malaiisch sein.
  • b. Die Englische Sprache sollte für einen Zeitraum von zehn Jahren nach dem Malaysia Day weitergenutzt werden.
  • c. Die Englische Sprache sollte für unbeschränkte Zeit eine offizielle Sprache von Nordborneo für alle Zwecke, sei es Bundes- oder Landesebene, sein.[32]

Punkt 3: Verfassung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Obwohl Einigkeit darüber herrscht, dass die derzeitige Verfassung der Föderation Malaya die Ausgangsbasis für eine Verfassung von Malaysia bilden sollte, sollte die Verfassung von Malaysia ein neues Dokument sein, das im Lichte eines freien Zusammenschlussen der Staaten entworfen und beschlossen wird und nicht eine Sammlung von Ergänzungen zu einer Verfassung, die von anderen Staaten unter völlig anderen Umständen entworfen und beschlossen wurde. Eine neue Verfassung für Nordborneo war selbstverständlich unbedingt erforderlich. Whilst accepting that the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya should form the basis of the Constitution of Malaysia, the Constitution of Malaysia should be a completely new document drafted and agreed in the light of a free association of states and should not be a series of amendments to a Constitution drafted and agreed by different states in totally different circumstances. A new Constitution for North Borneo was of course essential[33]

Punkt 4: Head of Federation[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

The Head of State in North Borneo should not be eligible for election as Head of the Federation, but the Ruler or Governors of North Borneo (later more commonly known as and Sarawak shall be members of the Conference of Rulers[34] its main responsibility is the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Punkt 5: Name der Föderation[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

“Malaysia” aber nicht “Melayu Raya”.

Punkt 6: Einwanderung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Die Kontrolle über die Einwanderung nach Malaysia im allgemeinen sollte bei der Zentralregierung liegen, aber eine Zuwanderung nach Nordborneo sollte auch der Genehmigung der Landesregierung bedürfen. Die Regierung der Föderation sollte bei Personen, die aus Gründen der Landesregierung nach Nordborneo einreisen, nicht Einspruch einlegen dürfen, es sei denn aus reinen Sicherheitsgründen. Nordborneo sollte uneingeschränkte Kontrolle über alle Personenbewegungen von anderen Teilen Malaysias nach Nordborneo haben, mit Ausnahme von Angestellten der Föderationsregierung.[35]

Point 7: Right of Secession[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

There should be no right to secede from the Federation.[36]

Punkt 8: Borneanisation[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Borneanisation of the public service should proceed as quickly as possible.[36]

Punkt 9: British Officers[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Every effort should be made to encourage British Officers to remain in the public service until their places can be taken by suitably qualified people from North Borneo.[36]

Punkt 10: Citizenship[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

The recommendation in paragraph 148(k) of the Report of the Cobbold Commission should govern the citizenship rights in the Federation of North Borneo subject to the following amendments:

  • a) sub-paragraph (i) should not contain the proviso as to five years residence
  • b) in order to tie up with our law, sub-paragraph (ii)(a) should read “7 out of 10 years” instead of “8 out of 10 years”
  • c) sub-paragraph (iii) should not contain any restriction tied to the citizenship of parents – a person born in North Borneo after Malaysia must be federal citizen.[36]

Punkt 11: Tariffs and Finance[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

North Borneo should retain control of its own finance, development and tariff,[36] and should have the right to work up its own taxation and to raise loans on its own credit.

Punkt 12: Stellung der indigenen Bevölkerung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Analog zu den Rechten der Malaien in Malaya sollten der indigenen Bevölkerung von Nordborneo vom Prinzip her besondere Rechte zugestanden werden. Die entsprechende Formulierung in der derzeitigen Verfassung von Malaya ist allerdings nicht notwendigerweise auf Nordborneo anwendbar.[36]

Punkt 13: State Government[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

  • a) the Chief Minister should be elected by unofficial members of Legislative Council
  • b) There should be a proper Ministerial system in North Borneo.[36]

Punkt 14: Übergangsperiode[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Diese sollte sieben Jahre währen und während dieser Periode muss die Legislative per Verfassung in der Hand des Staates Nordborneo liegen und nicht einfach von der malaysischen Bundesregierung an die Landesregierung delegiert werden.[36]

Punkt 15: Bildungswesen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Das bestehende Bildungswesen von Nordborneo soll beibehalten werden und aus diesem Grund sollte es unter der Kontrolle des Bundesstaates sein.[36]

Punkt 16: Constitutional safeguards[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

No amendment modification or withdrawal of any special safeguard granted to North Borneo should be made by the Central Government without the positive concurrence of the Government of the State of North Borneo

Das Recht, die Verfassung von Nordborneo abzuändern, sollte ausschließlich den Menschen im Bundesstaat vorbehalten sein.[36]
(Hinweis: Um eine Änderung der jweiligen Bundes- oder Landesverfassung in Kraft treten zu lassen, betrachten die Parteien United Party, Democratic Party und Pasok Momogun Party betrachten eine Drei-Viertel-Mehrheit als erforderlich, während die Parteien UNKO und USNO einer Zwei-Drittel-Mehrheit als ausreichend erachten.

Punkt 17: Representation in Federal Parliament[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

This should take account not only of the population of North Borneo but also of its size and potentialities and in any case should not be less than that of Singapore.[36]

Punkt 18: Name des Staatsoberhauptes[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Yang di-Pertua Negara.[36]

Punkt 19: Name des Bundesstaats[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Sabah.[36]

Punkt 20: Grundbesitz, Wälder, Kommunalverwaltung, etc.[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Die Bestimmungen in der Verfassung der Föderation hinsichtlich der Vollmachten des National Land Council sollten nicht auf Nordborneo angewandt werden. Ebenso sollte der National Council for Local Government keine Anwendung in Nordborneo finden.[36]

Dokumente[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Das Malaysia Agreement lists annexes of the 20-point agreement were therein
Annex A: Malaysia Bill
               First Schedule—Insertion of new Articles in Constitution
               Second Schedule—Section added to Eighth Schedule to Constitution
               Third Schedule—Citizenship (amendment of Second Schedule to Constitution)
               Fourth Schedule—Special Legislative Lists for Borneo States and Singapore
               Fifth Schedule—Additions for Borneo States to Tenth Schedule (Grants and assigned revenues) to Constitution
               Sixth Schedule—Minor and consequential amendments of Constitutions
Annex B: The Constitution of the State of Sabah
               The Schedule—Forms of Oaths and Affirmations
Annex C: The Constitution of the State of Sarawak
               The Schedule—Forms of Oaths and Affirmations
Annex D: The Constitution of the State of Singapore
               First Schedule—Forms of Oaths and Affirmations
               Second Schedule—Oath of Allegiance and Loyalty
               Third Schedule—Oath as Member of the Legislative Assembly
Annex F: Agreement of External Defence and Mutual Assistance
Annex G: North Borneo (Compensation and Retiring benefits) Order in Council, 1963
Annex H: Form of public officers agreements in respect of Sabah and Sarawak
Annex  I:  Form of public officers agreements in respect of Singapore
Annex  J: Agreement between the Governments of the Federation of Malaya and Singapore on common and financial arrangements
               Annex to Annek J—Singapore customs ordinance
Annex K: Arrangements with respect to broadcasting and television in Singapore

Literatur[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

  • A.J. Stockwell: Malaysia, Serie B Band 8 der Reihe British Documents on the End of Empire, TSO (The Stationery Office), Norwich, UK, 2004, ISBN 0-11-290581-1

Weblinks[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

(englisch)

References[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

  1. See: Section 1(1), Malaysia Act 1963, Chapter 35 (UK).
  2. No.10760: Agreement relating to Malaysia (PDF) In: United Nations Treaty Collection. United Nations. July 1963. Abgerufen am 22. September 2010.
  3. Agreement Concluded Between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore. Government Press, Kuala Lumpur (1 January 1963)
  4. Vorlage:Citation
  5. See: General Assembly 15th Session - resolution 1541 (XV) (pages:509-510)
  6. The states which abstained were: Australia, Belgium, Dominican Republic, France, Spain, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States of America.
  7. See: Clause 3 of the Charter reads: Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them.
  8. Cobbold was Governor of the Bank of England from 1949 to 1961. The other members were Wong Pow Nee, Chief Minister of Penang, Mohammed Ghazali Shafie, Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Anthony Abell, former Governor or Sarawak and David Watherston, former Chief Secretary of the Federation of Malaya.
  9. a b John Sturgus Bastin: Malaysia; Selected Historical Readings. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1979, ISBN 9783262012165, S. 526 (Abgerufen am Vorlage:Date).
  10. Sabah, S'wak urged to review agreements, Daily Express. 21. Dezember 2004. Abgerufen am 15. September 2010. 
  11. See: United Malays National Organisation
  12. a b Sambutan Kemerdekaan 55 tahun: The Formation of Malaysia
  13. The Kitingan case, the Borneo states, and the Malaysian constitution
  14. Cobbold Commission: Report of the Commission of Enquiry, North Borneo and Sarawak, 1962 (pdf) In: DigitaLibrary. DigitaLibrary Malaysia. 1962. Abgerufen am 16. September 2010.
  15. A J Stockwell (2004), p.377
  16. Stockwell: Malaysia, S. 624
  17. Stockwell: Malaysia, S. 386 [141]
  18. See: Singaporean national referendum, 1962
  19. James F. Ongkili, THE PROBLEMS OF KADAZANDUSUN BUMIPUTERAISM: PROMISES, PRIVILEGES AND POLITICS, Kajian Malaysia, Vol.XXI Nos. 1 & 2, 2003, School of History, Politics and Strategic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor
  20. Referenzfehler: Ungültiges <ref>-Tag; kein Text angegeben für Einzelnachweis mit dem Namen A J Stockwell.
  21. BRUNEI to KEEP ITS RICHES - SULTAN SATISFIED. In: The Straits Times, 8. Februar 1963. Abgerufen am 11. August 2012. 
  22. a b c d Anthony Stockwell: British Document on the End of Empire: Malaysia, Band Series B - Volume 8 "Conflict, deadlock and agreement". Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), London 2004, ISBN 0-11-290581-1, S. 659.
  23. General Assembly 15th Session – The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509–510)
  24. General Assembly 18th Session – the Question of Malaysia (pages:41–44)
  25. United Nations Treaty Registered No. 8029, Manila Accord between Philippnes, Federation of Malaya and Indonesia (31 JULY 1963)
  26. United Nations Treaty Series No. 8809, Agreement relating to the implementation of the Manila Accord
  27. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/10/19/nation/20091019103509&sec=nation The Star, October 19, 2009
  28. myGovernment : History of the Constitution
  29. See: Malaysian Malaysia
  30. See: the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 and the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Singapore Act 1966.
  31. Stockwell: Malaysia, S. 624
  32. Stockwell: Malaysia, S. 624
  33. Stockwell: Malaysia, S. 624
  34. See : Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore - Annex A - Malaysia Bill
  35. Stockwell: Malaysia, S. 624
  36. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ram Bahadur Mandal:Patterns of Regional Geography: An International Perspective, Vol. 3, Seite 252–254, Concept Publishing, New Delhi, 1990, ISBN 81-7022-292-3; Zugriff am 17. Oktober 2012

[[Kategorie:Geschichte von Sabah]] [[Category:Sabah–Malaysia relations]] [[Category:Political history of Malaysia]] [[Category:Treaties of Malaysia]] [[Category:Treaties concluded in 1963]] [[en:20-point agreement]] [[ms:Perjanjian 20 Perkara Sabah]]