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Werauch/Die Katar-Krise von Juni 2017
Teil von: Iran - Saudi-Arabien Stellvertreter Konflikt
Katar Länder, die die diplomatischen Beziehungen zu Katar abgebrochen haben Länder, die die diplomatischen Beziehungen verringert haben oder Botschafter zurückriefen
  • Katar
  • Länder, die die diplomatischen Beziehungen zu Katar abgebrochen haben
  • Länder, die die diplomatischen Beziehungen verringert haben oder Botschafter zurückriefen
  • Datum 5. Juni 2017 bis Heute
    Ort KatarKatar Katar
    Ausgang
    Konfliktparteien

    Saudi-ArabienSaudi-Arabien Saudi-Arabien
    Vereinigte Arabische EmirateVereinigte Arabische Emirate Vereinigte Arabische Emirate
    BahrainBahrain Bahrain
    AgyptenÄgypten Ägypten
    MaledivenMalediven Malediven
    JemenJemen Jemen
    MauretanienMauretanien Mauretanien
    KomorenKomoren Komoren
    Unterstützt durch:
    LibyenLibyen Libyen
    JordanienJordanien Jordanien
    TschadTschad Tschad[5]
    DschibutiDschibuti Dschibuti[6][7]
    SenegalSenegal Senegal[8]
    GabunGabun Gabun[9]

    Mediatoren:[10]
    Vereinigte StaatenVereinigte Staaten Vereinigte Staaten
    KuwaitKuwait Kuwait
    OmanOman Oman[11]
    SudanSudan Sudan[12][13]
    PakistanPakistan Pakistan[14]

    KatarKatar Katar
    Unterstützt durch:
    TurkeiTürkei Türkei[1][2]
    IranIran Iran[1][3]
    DeutschlandDeutschland Deutschland[4]

    Die Diplomatische Katar-Krise von Juni 2017, begann am 5. Juni.2017, als eine Vielzahl an Staaten abrupt die diplomatischen Beziehungen zu Katar beendeten. Zu diesen Staaten gehören: Saudi-Arabien, die Vereinigte Arabische Emirate, Bahrain, Ägypten und die Malediven. Geäußert hat sich der Abbruch, der Beziehungen, durch Handels- und Reiseverbote nach Katar.

    Die Türkei, Russland und der Iran haben eine Aufruf gemacht, bei der diplomatischen Krise die Katar zu unterstützen. Der US-Präsident Donald Trump kritisierte Katar und setzte sich mit Saudi-Arabien ein, diesen Krise zu lösen. Aber einige Tage später kehrte der Kurs in einem Telefonat mit dem Katarer Emir-Angebot um den Parteien zu helfen, ihre ausgespannten Beziehungen zu lösen.[15] Der Grund von dieser Krise ist das Vorwurf der arabischen Ländern, die Unterstützung von Terrorismus, insbesonders von Islamischer Staat.

    Hintergrund[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Qatar has had differences with other Arab governments on a number of issues: it broadcasts Al Jazeera; it is accused of maintaining good relations with Iran; and it has supported the Muslim Brotherhood in the past.[16] Qatar is also an American ally, hosting the largest American base in the Middle East, Al Udeid Air Base.[17] The countries withdrawing diplomatic relations accuse Qatar of supporting terrorism, of interfering with their internal affairs[18] and of maintaining relations with Iran.[19][20] Qatar denies allegations that it supported terrorism, and pointed out that it has been contributing to the U.S.-led fight against ISIL.[21]

    Fragen und Behauptungen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Qatar maintains relatively good relations with Iran. Qatar and Iran share ownership of South Pars / North Dome Gas-Condensate field,[22][23] by far the world's largest natural gas field, with significant geostrategic influence.[24] In April 2017, after a 12-year freeze, Qatar lifted a self-imposed ban on developing the gas field with Iran,[25] which would require cooperation between the two countries.[26] According to Jim Krane, energy research fellow at Rice University’s Baker Institute, “Qatar used to be a kind of Saudi vassal state, but it used the autonomy that its gas wealth created to carve out an independent role for itself...Above all, gas prompted Qatar to promote a regional policy of engagement with Shiite Iran to secure the source of its wealth”.[27] According to the Wall Street Journal, the crisis has turned into a proxy battle between partners and adversaries of Iran.[28] The Qatari ruling family has tried to cultivate good relations with countries and organizations that are at odds with each other. ”To establish a massive base for the US military on its territory, while at the same time flirting with Iran; to fight terror, but fund the Islamic State and the Al-Nusra front in Syria… But Qatar failed to understand that the new regional power, now more than ever, is Saudi Arabia.”[29] Qatar also used its contacts to help negotiate peaceful exchanges of hostages for the safe evacuation of civilians from areas affected by the Syrian Civil War.[16] However, Qatar also sent its forces to fight against alleged Iranian-backed militias in the current Yemeni Civil War and has supported rebels fighting the Iranian-allied government of Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian Civil War.[16] Qatar has supported the Muslim Brotherhood in the past.[30] Saudi Arabia and other Gulf monarchies see the Muslim Brotherhood as a threat, as it ideologically opposes hereditary rule.[30] The government of Egypt has long viewed the Muslim Brotherhood as "enemy number one".[31] In 2011, during the Arab Spring, Qatar supported the Egyptian protesters agitating for change, as well as the Muslim Brotherhood.[32] By contrast, Saudi Arabia supported Hosni Mubarak and currently supports Abdel Fattah el-Sisi since the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état.[33] Qatar has been accused of sponsoring terrorism.[34] Some countries have faulted Qatar for funding rebel groups in Syria, including al-Qaeda's affiliate in Syria, the al-Nusra Front,[35] although the Saudis have done the same.[16][36] Qatar has hosted officials from the Afghan Taliban[37] and Hamas. Qatar defends this move by saying it is trying to act as an intermediary in regional conflicts.[38] For example, Qatar hosted talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government in 2016.[39] On 27 May 2017, the newly-reelected Iranian President Hassan Rouhani held a phone call with Qatar's Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.[40] Rouhani told Qatar's emir, "The countries of the region need more cooperation and consultations to resolve the crisis in the region and we are ready to cooperate in this field."[41] On 6 June 2017, the U.S. State Department said that Qatar had made progress in curbing terrorist funding, but that there was still much to do.[42] Former US Defense Secretary and ex-CIA chief Robert Gates stated in May 2017 that he does not ”know instances in which Qatar aggressively goes after (terror finance) networks of Hamas, Taliban, Al-Qaeda,”[43] and that “My attitudes toward Al-Udeid and any other facility is that the United States military doesn’t have any irreplaceable facility.”[44][45] Qatar hosts the largest American base in the Middle East, the Al Udeid Air Base, which has been used by the United States in its campaigns in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan.[17][46]

    Bisherige diplomatische Vorfälle[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (left), current president of Egypt who led the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état against Islamist President Mohamed Morsi (right), who was supported by Qatar Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (left), current president of Egypt who led the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état against Islamist President Mohamed Morsi (right), who was supported by Qatar
    Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (left), current president of Egypt who led the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état against Islamist President Mohamed Morsi (right), who was supported by Qatar

    In March 2014, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates removed their ambassadors from Qatar, citing interference with their internal affairs, but the situations were eventually defused after Qatar forced Brotherhood members to leave the country eight months later.[16][30] In February 2015, Egypt–Qatar relations emerged after the Egyptian Air Force conducted airstrikes on suspected ISIL positions in neighboring Libya following the beheading of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians.[47][48] The airstrikes were condemned by Al Jazeera, who broadcast images of civilian casualties.[48] Additionally, Qatar's foreign ministry expressed reservations over the airstrikes. This prompted Tariq Adel, Egypt's Arab League delegate, to accuse Qatar of supporting terrorism. Egyptian citizens also launched an online campaign denouncing the Qatari government.[49] The Gulf Cooperation Council rejected Egypt's accusations and its secretary general regarded the statements to be false.[50] Shortly after, Qatar recalled its ambassador to Egypt for "consultations".[49]

    Hauptgründe[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    U.S. President Donald Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh Summit. The meeting is cited as one of the catalysts for the crisis.[16]
    Flag of Tahrir al-Sham, a Sunni militant group. Qatar is accused of paying the group $140 million in a deal that saw the release of hostages[51] and allowing of humanitarian aid to Shi'ite and Sunni villages in Syria.[52]

    The exact reasons for the diplomatic break-offs are unclear, but contemporary news coverage primarily attributes this to several events in April and May 2017.

    Verhandlungen von April 2017[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    In April 2017, Qatar was involved in a deal with both Sunni and Shi'ite militants in Iraq and Syria. The deal had two goals. The immediate goal was to secure the return of 26 Qatari hostages (including Qatari royals) who had been kidnapped by Shi'ite militants and kept in captivity for more than 16 months.[52] The second goal was to get both Sunni and Shi'ite militants in Syria to allow humanitarian aid to pass through and allow the safe evacuation of civilians.[52] According to the New York Times, this deal allowed the evacuation of at least 2,000 civilians from the Syrian village of Madaya alone.[52] What outraged Saudi Arabia and the UAE is the amount of money Qatar had to pay to secure the deal. According to the Financial Times Qatar paid $700 million to Iranian-backed Shi'a militias in Iraq, $120-140 million to Tahrir al-Sham, and $80 million to Ahrar al-Sham.[51]

    Riyad-Gipfel 2017[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    As part of the Riyadh Summit in late May 2017, many world leaders, including U.S. President Donald Trump visited the region. Trump gave strong support for Saudi Arabia's efforts in fighting against states and groups allied with Iran and the Muslim Brotherhood, leading to an arms deal between the countries. Trump's support may have induced other Sunni states to follow in line with Saudi Arabia to take a stance against Qatar.[16]

    Hackerangriffe auf die Internetseiten von Katar[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    The Qatar News Agency website and other government media platforms were hacked in May 2017. According to Qatar-based Al Jazeera, hackers posted fake remarks on the official Qatar News Agency attributed to the Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, that expressed support for Iran, Hamas, Hezbollah and Israel.[53] The emir was quoted as saying: “Iran represents a regional and Islamic power that cannot be ignored and it is unwise to face up against it. It is a big power in the stabilization of the region.”[54][40] Qatar reported that the statements were false and did not know their origin.[16] Despite this, the remarks were widely publicized in the various Arab news media, including UAE-based Sky News Arabia and Al Arabiya.[53] On 3 June 2017, the Twitter account of Bahraini foreign minister Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa was hacked.[55] Intelligence gathered by the US security agencies indicates that Russian hackers were behind the intrusion first reported by the Qataris.[42][56] However, a U.S. official briefed on the inquiry told the New York Times that it "was unclear whether the hackers were state-sponsored"[57] and The Guardian diplomatic editor Patrick Wintour reported that "It is believed that the Russian government was not involved in the hacks; instead, freelance hackers were paid to undertake the work on behalf of some other state or individual."[56] A U.S. diplomat said that Russia and its ally Iran stood to benefit from sowing discord among U.S. allies in the region, "particularly if they made it more difficult for the United States to use Qatar as a major base."[57] The FBI sent a team of investigators to Doha to help the Qatari government investigate the hacking incident.[58]

    Al-Jazeera[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    In May 2017, the email account of the UAE's ambassador to the U.S., Yousef Al-Otaiba, was allegedly hacked. The emails were seen as "embarrassing",[59] because they allegedly showed links between the UAE and a pro-Israeli group, the Foundation for Defense of Democracies.[59] The story was covered by Al-Jazeera and HuffPost Arabi, both of which are funded by Qatar. Arab countries saw the media coverage of the alleged email hack as a provocation by Qatar,[60] and deepened the rift between the two sides.[61] On 9 June, Al-Jazeera's media network was the victim of a cyber attack across all its platforms.[62]

    Diplomatische Beziehungen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Abbruch der Beziehungen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Between 5 and 6 June 2017, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Yemen, Egypt, the Maldives, and Bahrain all separately announced that they were cutting diplomatic ties with Qatar.[63][64][18][19] All involved countries ordered their citizens out of Qatar.[20] Three Gulf states (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain) gave Qatari visitors and residents two weeks to leave their countries.[65] The foreign ministries of Bahrain and Egypt gave Qatari diplomats 48 hours to leave their countries.[66][19] Qatar was expelled from the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.[65] Saudi Arabia and the UAE notified ports and shipping agents not to receive Qatari vessels or ships owned by Qatari companies or individuals.[67] Saudi Arabia closed the border with Qatar.[67] Iran offered to send food shipments to Qatar.[67] Saudi Arabia restricted its airspace to Qatar Airways. Instead Qatar has rerouted flights to Africa and Europe via Iran.[68] Saudi Arabia's central bank advised banks not to trade with Qatari banks in Qatari riyals.[69] Hamad Saif al-Shamsi, the Attorney-General of the United Arab Emirates announced on 7 June that publishing expressions of sympathy towards Qatar through social media, or any type of written, visual or verbal form is considered illegal under UAE's Federal Penal Code and the Federal law on Combating Information Technology Crimes. Violators of this offense face between 3 to 15 years imprisonment, a fine of up to 500,000 emirati dirhams ($136,000) or both.[70][71] Kuwaiti mediators in Riyadh were presented a list of Saudi demands to Qatar. These included cutting off all links with Iran and expelling resident members of Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood, curbs on the freedom of al-Jazeera, to stop “interfering” in foreign countries’ affairs and to cease any funding or support for terrorist organisations.[72] According to a professor of international relations and Gulf studies at Georgetown University’s Doha campus, Qatar is unlikely to break relations with Iran, because that would jeopardize a relationship that is just too fundamental to Qatar’s economic development.[73] As of 7 June 2017, nine sovereign governments have cut diplomatic ties with Qatar.[74][75]

    The Tobruk-based government of Libya claimed to have cut diplomatic ties with Qatar despite having no diplomatic representation in that country.[77][78][79] The Libyan interim government is based in eastern Libya and is one of Libya's three rival governments.Vorlage:Efn Reports that Mauritius had cut ties with Qatar were refuted by the Mauritian government.[80][81] A report in the Saudi Gazette incorrectly stated that Mauritius had broken off ties with Qatar and that Mauritius' Vice Prime-Minister had issued a communique pledging his country's support for Saudi Arabia. This prompted further erroneous reports by other outlets. However, Mauritian Vice Prime Minister Showkutally Soodhun in an interview with Le Défi Media Group of Mauritius refuted claims that he had issued any such communique, and Mauritius' Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement that Mauritius continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Qatar.[80][81] As of 7 June 2017, four countries have downgraded diplomatic ties with Qatar without fully cutting relations.

    Reaktion von Katar[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    The Foreign Ministry of Qatar criticized the ban, arguing that it undermined Qatar's sovereignty.[65] The foreign minister of Qatar, Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al-Thani, said that Saudi statements regarding Qatar were contradictory: on one hand, Saudi Arabia claimed Qatar was supporting Iran, on the other hand, it claimed Qatar was funding Sunni extremists fighting against Iran.[84]

    Andere Reaktionen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Eight countries and the United Nations called for the resolution of the diplomatic crisis through dialogue:

    Germany foreign minister Sigmar Gabriel expressed support for Qatar and criticized the severing of ties.[94] He accused US President Donald Trump of stirring up conflict in the Middle East.[95] India said that it viewed the crisis as an internal matter of the Gulf Cooperation Council and was primarily concerned with the Indian expatriates in the region.[96][97] Israel said that the crisis opened up opportunities for cooperation in the fight against terrorism, claiming that the "Arab countries that cut off their diplomatic relations with Qatar did not do so because of Israel or the Palestinian issue, but because of their fear of radical Islamic terrorism".[98] Pakistan stated that it had no plans to cut diplomatic relations with Qatar.[99] Member of the Parliament passed a resolution in National Assembly of Pakistan urging all countries to "show restraint and resolve their differences through dialogue".[92] Federal minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources said that "Pakistan will continue to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Qatar."[100] A six-member Qatari delegation headed by a special envoy of the Qatari Emir visited Pakistan and asked Pakistan to play a positive role in resolving the diplomatic crisis. Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif said "Pakistan would do "all it can" to help resolve the crisis and called on the Muslim world to play a role in ending hostilities."[101] The Philippines suspended the deployment of migrant workers to Qatar on 6 June[102]. However, on 7 June, they allowed the deployment of the returning workers and those with Overseas Employment Certificate, but still suspended the deployment of new workers.[103] United States President Donald Trump claimed credit for engineering the diplomatic crisis in a series of tweets.[104] On 6 June, Trump began by tweeting: "During my recent trip to the Middle East I stated that there can no longer be funding of Radical Ideology. Leaders pointed to Qatar – look!"[105][104] An hour and a half later, he remarked on Twitter that it was "good to see the Saudi Arabia visit with the King and 50 countries already paying off. They said they would take a hard line on funding extremism, and all reference was pointing to Qatar. Perhaps this will be the beginning of the end to the horror of terrorism!"[106][107][108] This was in contrast to attempts by the Pentagon and State department to remain neutral. The Pentagon praised Qatar for hosting the Al Udeid Air Base and for its "enduring commitment to regional security." U.S. Ambassador to Qatar, Dana Shell Smith, sent a similar message.[109][110] Earlier, the US Secretary of State had taken a neutral stance and called for dialogue.[111] Qatar hosts about 10,000 U.S. troops at Al Udeid Air Base, which houses the forward operating base of United States Central Command that plays a commanding role in US airstrikes in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan.[112][108][113] A Pentagon spokesperson claimed the diplomatic crisis would not affect the US military posture in Qatar.[108][104] On 8 June, President Donald Trump, during a phone call with the Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, offered as a mediator in the conflict with a White House meeting between the parties if necessary.[114] The offer was declined, and Qatari official stated, "The emir has no plans to leave Qatar while the country is under a blockade."[115] On 7 June, the Turkish parliament approved a legislation which first drafted in May after it passed with 240 votes in favour and 98 against, thus allowing its troops to be deployed to a Turkish military base in Qatar.[116][117] On 8 June, Egypt's deputy U.N. Ambassador Ihab Moustafa called for the United Nations Security Council to launch an investigation into accusations that Qatar "paid up to $1 billion to a terrorist group active in Iraq" to free 26 Qatari hostages, including members of its royal family, which would violate U.N. resolutions. The Qataris were kidnapped 16 December 2015 from a desert camp for falcon hunters in southern Iraq. The hostages were released eighteen months later in April 2017. Qatari diplomats responded to the Egyptian calls for an investigation by reaffirming their commitment to the U.N. resolutions towards eliminating the financing of terrorism.[118][119]

    Auswirkungen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Flugverkehr[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Large airlines based in these countries, including Emirates, suspended flight service to Qatar.[120][121] Gulf Air,[122] EgyptAir,[123] FlyDubai, Air Arabia, Saudi Arabian Airlines and Etihad Airways suspended their flights to and from Qatar.[124] Bahrain,[125] Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are also banning overflights by aircraft registered in Qatar. Instead Qatar has rerouted flights to Africa and Europe via Iran.[68] Qatar Airways in response also suspended their flight operations to Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, and Bahrain.[124][126] Pakistan International Airlines sent special flights to bring back over 200 Pakistani pilgrims stuck at Doha airport.[127] Over 550 Pakistani pilgrims in Doha were subsequently flown to Muscat.[128] Private jet travel is also being impacted by the crisis. Business aviation officials said private flights between Qatar and the countries that cut diplomatic ties now need to make a technical stop in a third country. Aircraft registered in Qatar cannot fly to the countries that cut diplomatic ties and vice versa. While business jet operators can request a nonstop routing, two officials said requests so far have been turned down necessitating a stop in a third country. [129]

    Schiffsverkehr[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    The United Arab Emirates banned Qatar-flagged ships from calling at Fujairah. It also banned vessels from Qatar from the port and vessels at the port from sailing directly to Qatar.[130] Similar restrictions were put in place at Jebel Ali. Bahrain, Egypt and Saudi Arabia also banned Qatar-flagged ships from their ports.[131] This left shipping giant Maersk unable to transport in or out of Qatar entirely. Due to Qatar's shallow ports, large cargo ships are required to dock at Jebel Ali or other nearby ports where a feeder service transports the goods into Qatar.[132]

    Nahrung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Nearly 80 percent of Qatar's food requirements come from Gulf Arab neighbors, with only 1 percent being produced domestically and even imports from outside the Gulf states usually crossing the now closed land border with Saudi Arabia.[133] Immediately after the cutting of relations, local reports indicated residents swarmed grocery stores in hopes of stockpiling food. Many food delivery trucks remain idle along the Saudi-Qatari border. Iranian officials have offered delivery of food which could arrive within 12 hours.[134][135] On 8 June, 2017 Qatari Foreign Minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman al-Thani said, "We're not worried about a food shortage, we're fine. We can live forever like this, we are well prepared." Turkey has pledged food and water supplies to go along with their troop deployment at their Turkish military base in Qatar.[115]

    Medienverbot und Zensur[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain, and the UAE all blocked access to Qatari news agencies, including one of the most popular Arab news outlets, Qatar-based Al Jazeera.[136] Saudi Arabia shut down the local office of Al Jazeera Media Network.[67] The BBC speculated that changes to Al-Jazeera would be a necessary part of any peaceful resolution.[137] The UAE banned any expression of sympathy towards Qatar. Anyone found publishing a sympathetic piece on Qatar could be imprisoned for up to 15 years.[138] On June 8th, 2017, Bahrain also banned any expression of sympathy towards Qatar. Violators will face a fine and and jail term up to five years.[139]

    Finanzen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    The International Monetary Fund said it was too soon to judge the economic impact of the diplomatic crisis.[140] Standard & Poor's downgraded Qatar's debt by one notch from AA to AA- as the Qatari riyal fell to an 11-year low.[141]

    Post[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    On June 6th, 2017, Emirates Post of UAE, halted postal services to Qatar.[142]

    Energie[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    Qatar is a global leader in liquefied natural gas production. Despite the severing of ties, Qatari natural gas continues to flow to the UAE and Oman through Abu Dhabi based Dolphin Energy's pipeline. The pipeline meets about 30-40 percent of UAE's energy needs.[143][144] Shipping constraints from the crisis have also rerouted multiple shipments of oil and gas to and from the Gulf, which has caused reverberations in many local energy markets. On 8 June, 2017 United Kingdom, with nearly a third of all imported gas arriving from Qatar, gas futures spiked nearly 4 percent.[145][146]


    Einzelnachweise[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

    1. a b Turkey, Iran Back Qatar In Dispute With Other Arab States. Abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017.
    2. Turkey's Tayyip Erdogan criticises Qatar sanctions. Abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017.
    3. Subscribe to read. Abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017.
    4. German Foreign Minister Supports Qatar, Bashes Trump. In: Handelsblatt Global Edition. 6. Juni 2017 (handelsblatt.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    5. Chad recalls ambassador from Qatar amid Gulf Arab row. In: Reuters. 8. Juni 2017 (reuters.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    6. Wam: Djibouti downgrades diplomatic relations with Qatar. Abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017.
    7. WAM: Djibouti downgrades Qatar relations. In: GulfNews. 8. Juni 2017 (gulfnews.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    8. Reuters: Senegal recalls ambassador in Qatar, backs Saudi Arabia. In: The Economic Times. 7. Juni 2017 (indiatimes.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    9. Mauritania breaks diplomatic ties with Qatar, Gabon voices condemnation. In: Reuters. 7. Juni 2017 (reuters.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    10. Qatar vows no surrender in Gulf crisis as U.S., Kuwait seek solution. In: Reuters. 9. Juni 2017 (reuters.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    11. Saudi foreign minister arrives in Oman to hold talks in Muscat. alarabiya.net, 8. Juni 2017, abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017 (englisch).
    12. Sudan urges 'reconciliation' to end Gulf row with Qatar. In: News24. (news24.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    13. Sudan appeals for calm between Qatar and Gulf. In: Middle East Monitor. 6. Juni 2017 (middleeastmonitor.com [abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017]).
    14. On Qatar, Pakistan walks a diplomatic tightrope. Abgerufen am 9. Juni 2017.
    15. Trump reverses course in Qatar call. CNN. 8 June 2017.
    16. a b c d e f g h Anne Barnard, David Kirkpatrick: 5 Arab States Break Ties With Qatar, Complicating U.S. Coalition-Building. 5 June 2017. Abgerufen am 5 June 2017.
    17. a b Brad Lendon: Qatar hosts largest US military base in Mideast. CNN. 5 June 2017. Abgerufen am 5 June 2017.
    18. a b Associated Press: Saudi Arabia Accuses Qatar of Backing Terrorism, Cuts Ties. In: NBCnews.com, 5 June 2017. 
    19. a b c Patrick Wintour: Gulf plunged into diplomatic crisis as countries cut ties with Qatar (en-GB). In: The Guardian, 5 June 2017. 
    20. a b Jon Gambrell: Arab nations cut ties with Qatar in new Mideast crisis (en-GB). 5 June 2017. 
    21. Sheikh Tamim denies Qatar has links to terrorism. In: Khaleej Times, 25 May 2017. 
    22. Haaretz, Reuters: The Qatar-Iran Gas Field Behind the Diplomatic War in the Middle East. 5 June 2017. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017.
    23. Marc Champion: Saudi Arabia’s feud with Qatar has 22-year history rooted in gas. 6 June 2017. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017.
    24. Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., "Why the Arabs Don’t Want Us in Syria", politico.com, 22 February 2016
    25. Qatar restarts development of world's biggest gas field after 12-year freeze. 4 April 2017. Abgerufen am 8 June 2017.
    26. Haaretz, Reuters: The Qatar-Iran Gas Field Behind the Diplomatic War in the Middle East. 7 June 2017. Abgerufen am 8 June 2017.
    27. Saudi Dispute With Qatar Has 22-Year History Rooted in Gas. 6 June 2017. Abgerufen am 8 June 2017.
    28. Yaroslav Trofimov: Qatar Crisis Turns Into Proxy Battle of Mideast Rivals. 8 June 2017. Abgerufen am 8 June 2017.
    29. Cutting off Qatar. Abgerufen am 9 June 2017.
    30. a b c Patrick Wintour: Gulf plunged into diplomatic crisis as countries cut ties with Qatar. In: The Guardian, 5 June 2017. 
    31. Kersten Knipp: Discord in the Persian Gulf: Qatar and the Muslim Brotherhood. In: Deutsche Welle. 27 May 2017. Abgerufen am 5 June 2017.
    32. Why Tiny Qatar Angers Saudi Arabia and Its Allies: QuickTake Q&A. In: Bloomberg.com, 5 June 2017. 
    33. Euan McKirdy: Middle East split: The allies isolating Qatar. In: CNN, 5 June 2017. 
    34. Qatar was a double agent in war on terror. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
    35. Gulf allies and ‘Army of Conquest. In: Al-Ahram Weekly, 28 May 2015. 
    36. Kim Sengupta: Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria. In: The Independent, 12 May 2015. 
    37. How Tiny Qatar 'Punches Above Its Weight', NPR. 23 December 2013. Abgerufen am 5 June 2015. 
    38. What is behind the extraordinary Gulf dispute with Qatar?. 
    39. Taliban and Afghanistan restart secret talks in Qatar. 
    40. a b "Trump's 'Arab NATO' Vision is a Desert Mirage". Stratfor. 31 May 2017.
    41. "Iran president holds phone conversation with Qatari emir over Gulf relations". The National. 27 May 2017.
    42. a b Evan Perez & Shimon Prokupecz, US suspects Russian hackers planted fake news behind Qatar crisis, CNN (6 June 2017).
    43. Christopher Helman: Exxon's LNG Ventures Could Be At Risk As Saudis Lead Sanctions Against Qatar. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
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    45. Subscribe to read. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
    46. For Qataris, a U.S. air base is best defense against Trump attacks. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
    47. David Kirkpatrick: Egypt Launches Airstrike in Libya Against ISIS Branch. In: New York Times. 16 February 2015. Abgerufen am 23 March 2015.
    48. a b Walaa Hussein: Qatar rejects Egypt’s war on terrorism. Al Monitor. 1 March 2015. Abgerufen am 23 March 2015.
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    50. GCC rejects accusation of Egypt to Qatar supporting terrorism. BBC Arabic. 19 February 2015. Abgerufen am 23 March 2015.
    51. a b Erika Solomon, The $1bn hostage deal that enraged Qatar’s Gulf rivals: Doha reportedly paid al-Qaeda affiliate and Iran to win release of royal hunting party, Financial Times (5 June 2017).
    52. a b c d Big Ransom and Syria Deals Win Release of Royal Qatari Hunters. 
    53. a b Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Bahrain cut ties to Qatar. In: AlJazeera.com, 5 June 2017. 
    54. "Hack, fake story expose real tensions between Qatar, Gulf". Fox News. 24 May 2017.
    55. Bahrain minister briefly hacked after Qatar cyber attack. In: Phys.org. 3 June 2017. Abgerufen am 5 June 2017.
    56. a b Patrick Wintour, Russian hackers to blame for sparking Qatar crisis, FBI inquiry finds (7 June 2017).
    57. a b Mark Landler, Trump Takes Credit for Saudi Move Against Qatar, a U.S. Military Partner, New York Times (6 June 2017).
    58. Ministry of the Interior Statement on Piracy Crime on Qatar News Agency Website.
    59. a b Akbar Shahid Ahmed: Someone Is Using These Leaked Emails To Embarrass Washington's Most Powerful Ambassador. In: Huffington Post, 3 June 2017. Abgerufen am 5 June 2017. 
    60. ANALYSIS: UAE envoy’s hacked emails and Qatar’s escalating Gulf rift. In: Al Arabiya. 4 June 2017. Abgerufen am 5 June 2017.
    61. What is behind the extraordinary Gulf dispute with Qatar?. In: Financial Times, 5 June 2017. 
    62. Jen Mills: Al Jazeera hit by ‘cyber attack on all systems’. In: Metro. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Abgerufen am 9 June 2017.
    63. Why Saudi Arabia and six other countries have cut ties with Qatar. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017.
    64. Qatar row: Five countries cut links with Doha (en-GB). 5 June 2017. 
    65. a b c Saudi, Egypt, UAE, Bahrain and Yemen isolate Qatar over 'terrorism' as rift deepens (en). In: Dawn, 5 June 2017. 
    66. Qatar: 'No justification' for cutting diplomatic ties. In: Al Jazeera, 5 June 2017. 
    67. a b c d Qatar diplomatic crisis: All the latest updates. In: www.aljazeera.com. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017. 
    68. a b Saudi-led Rupture With Qatar Pushes Nation Into Iran's Embrace. 
    69. "Saudi central bank tells banks not to trade with Qatar banks in Qatari riyals: sources". Reuters
    70. UAE bans expressions of sympathy toward Qatar: media. Reuters. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
    71. Strict action against anyone showing sympathy with Qatar: UAE. Khaleej Times. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
    72. Qatar crisis: Saudi Arabia insists Gulf country must meet its demands ‘soon’.
    73. Marc Champion: Saudi Arabia’s feud with Qatar has 22-year history rooted in gas. 6 June 2017.
    74. Arab states sever ties with Qatar, announce blockade. 5 June 2017.
    75. Qatar row: Saudi and Egypt among countries to cut Doha links (en-GB). In: BBC News, 5 June 2017. 
    76. Comoros severs diplomatic relations with Qatar The official Saudi Press Agency. Abgerufen am 8 June 2017.
    77. a b Qatar: We're 'willing to talk' to resolve diplomatic crisis, CNN. 6 June 2017. 
    78. Libya's eastern-based government cuts diplomatic ties with Qatar. 5 June 2017.
    79. Jamie Prentis: Beida government cuts off diplomatic relations with Qatar. In: Libya Herald, 5 June 2017. 
    80. a b Maurice maintient ses relations diplomatiques avec le Qatar. 6 June 2017. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017. 
    81. a b Diplomatie : Maurice maintient ses liens avec le Qatar. 7 June 2017. 
    82. Djibdiplomatie1: URGENT/COMMUNIQUE DE PRESSE.
    83. Senegal recalls Qatar ambassador, backs Saudi in Gulf row, Reuters. 7 June 2017. 
    84. Qatar: We're 'willing to talk' to resolve diplomatic crisis. 
    85. Algeria calls for dialogue to resolve Qatar row. Anadolu Agency. 6 June 2017.
    86. Noah Browning: Arab powers sever Qatar ties, widening rift among US allies (en-US). 5 June 2017. 
    87. Saudi Arabia, Egypt lead Arab states cutting Qatar ties, Iran blames Trump. 5 June 2017.
    88. Russia Hopes Anti-Terror Efforts Unaffected by Qatar Diplomatic Row. In: Sputnik News, 5 June 2017. 
    89. Somalia: Govt Breaks Silence Over the Qatar Crisis. allAfrica. 7 June 2017.
    90. Tunisia follows with concern diplomatic crisis in Gulf countries, Xinhua Net. 
    91. Turkey calls for dialogue over Qatar rift with Arab states. In: Reuters, 5 June 2017. 
    92. a b Middle East diplomatic crisis: lawmakers pass resolution in NA urging restraint (en). In: DAWN.COM, 8 June 2017. 
    93. Deeply Concerned by Middle East Situation, Secretary-General Encourages Diplomacy to Avoid Escalating Tensions | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases (en)
    94. German Foreign Minister Voices Support for Qatar, Bashes Trump. In: Handelsblatt. 
    95. German foreign minister accuses US of stirring up Middle East conflict. In: DW. 
    96. Arab nations cut ties with Qatar over ‘terror links’, MEA worried about 6.5 lakh Indians living there. In: The Times of India. 
    97. Arab nations cutting ties with Qatar GCC’s internal matter, says Sushma Swaraj. In: Hindustan times, 5 June 2017. 
    98. Jonathan Lis: Qatar Crisis Opens Up Opportunities for Israel, Lieberman Says. 5 June 2017. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017.
    99. Pakistan has no plans to cut diplomatic ties with Qatar: FO. In: The Express Tribune, 5 June 2017. 
    100. Pakistan to continue import of LNG from Qatar (en). In: DAWN.COM, 8 June 2017. 
    101. Delegation headed by special envoy of Qatari Emir makes short visit to Pakistan (en). In: DAWN.COM, 8 June 2017. 
    102. Philippines bans deployment of workers to Qatar. In: Sun Star Manila, 6 June 2017. 
    103. PHL partially lifts suspension of OFW deployment to Qatar, GMA network. 
    104. a b c Qatar row: Trump claims credit for isolation, BBC. 
    105. ?Vorlage:Cite tweet
    106. ?Vorlage:Cite tweet
    107. ?Vorlage:Cite tweet
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    110. Trump appears to take credit for Gulf nations' move against Qatar, CNN. 
    111. Tillerson says break with Qatar by Saudi Arabia, others won't affect counter-terrorism. CNBC. 5 June 2017.
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    115. a b Qatar vows no surrender in Gulf crisis as U.S., Kuwait seek solution. In: Reuters, 8 June 2017. 
    116. Turkish parliament approves troop deployment to Qatar. Al Jazeera. 8 June 2017.
    117. Halil Celik and Alex Lantier: Turkey prepares to send troops to Qatar in conflict with Saudi Arabia. World Socialist Web Site. 9 June 2017.
    118. Egypt calls for U.N. inquiry into accusation of Qatar ransom payment. In: Reuters, 8 June 2017. 
    119. ABC News: The Latest: Egypt seeks UN probe of alleged Qatar ransom (en). In: ABC News. 
    120. Glen Carey: Flights Grounded as Gulf Split on Iran Leaves Qatar Isolated. In: Bloomberg.com, 5 June 2017. 
    121. Suspension of flights between Dubai and Doha with effect from 6 June 2017. Emirates. 5 June 2017. Archiviert vom Original am 6 June 2017.
    122. Aarti Nagraj: Emirates, Etihad, Flydubai, Gulf Air and Air Arabia to suspend Qatar flights. In: Gulf Business, 5 June 2017. 
    123. EgyptAir Suspends Flights to Qatar Until Special Notice (en). In: Sputniknews.com, 5 June 2017. 
    124. a b Qatar diplomatic crisis: How it affects air travel. In: Al Jazeera, 5 June 2017. 
    125. Flight Ban for Qatar Flights in UAE, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Egypt. In: Flightradar24, 5 June 2017. 
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    128. 550 Pakistani pilgrims stranded in Qatar flown to Muscat (en). In: DAWN.COM, 6 June 2017. 
    129. Private Jet Card Comparisons - Know Before You Buy Qatar’s Diplomatic Crisis Is Impacting Private Jets Too. 6 June 2017. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017.
    130. Report: Port of Fujairah Bans Qatari-Flagged Ships. World Maritime News. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017.
    131. More Arab Ports Deny Calls to Qatari Ships. World Maritime News. Abgerufen am 6 June 2017.
    132. Maersk says unable to ship Qatar bound cargo from UAE, seeks alternatives. In: Reuters, 2017. Abgerufen am 8 June 2017. 
    133. Analysis | Qatar could face a food crisis in spat with Arab neighbors. In: Washington Post. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017. 
    134. The Latest: Food Trucks Lining Up At Saudi Border With Qatar. In: Bloomberg.com, 5 June 2017. 
    135. Arab powers sever Qatar ties, citing support for militants. In: Reuters, 6 June 2017. 
    136. Qatar hacking row fuels Gulf tensions. In: BBC News, 25 May 2017. Abgerufen am 7 June 2017. 
    137. Kevin Ponniah: Qatar crisis: Can Al Jazeera survive?. 7 June 2017.
    138. UAE says to jail Qatar sympathizers for up to 15 years. 
    139. Wam: Qatar sympathisers in Bahrain to face fine, jail.
    140. IMF says too soon to judge impact from Qatar, Gulf diplomatic dispute. In: Reuters, Thu Jun 08 14:57:42 UTC 2017. 
    141. Standard and Poor's downgrades Qatar debt rating (en-US). In: Financial Review, 8. Juni 2017. 
    142. Emirates Post Group halts services to Qatar (en-US). 
    143. The U.A.E. Needs Qatar’s Gas to Keep Dubai’s Lights On. In: Bloomberg.com, 7. Juni 2017. 
    144. Zahraa Alkhalisi: Qatar keeps gas flowing to UAE despite blockade. 7. Juni 2017.
    145. Patti Domm: Qatar fight finally spills into global energy market. 8. Juni 2017.
    146. Adam Vaughan: Qatar crisis highlights rising UK energy reliance on imports (en-GB). In: The Guardian, 8. Juni 2017. 

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