John J. Carty Award

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Der John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science ist eine Auszeichnung der National Academy of Sciences für herausragende wissenschaftliche Leistungen. Der Preis wird seit 1932 verliehen, zuletzt alle zwei Jahre. Er ist mit einer Medaille und einem Preisgeld von 25.000 US-Dollar verbunden. Die Auszeichnung ist nach dem ersten Preisträger John J. Carty benannt, dem langjährigen Chefingenieur von AT&T. Das Unternehmen AT&T ist auch Stifter des Preises.

Preisträger[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]

Michael Goddard, einer der Preisträger im Jahr 2016.
  • 2018: David M. Kreps, Paul R. Milgrom, Robert B. Wilson (Wirtschaftswissenschaften) – For making fundamental advances to game theory by showing how incomplete information alters equilibrium outcomes. Their advances enhance our understanding the impact of reputation and the emergence of cooperation. The resulting insights enrich the analysis and application of auctions for allocating scarce resources.
  • 2016: Michael Goddard, Theodorus Meuwissen (Agrarwissenschaften) – For the development of genomic selection - uniting quantitative genetic theory with genomics technology - revolutionizing the genetic improvement of livestock and crops. Their research also invigorated genomic prediction, which has far-ranging implications for fields from human medicine to conservation biology.
  • 2014: Joseph DeRisi (Genombiologie) – For pioneering efforts to develop new genomic technologies and using the technologies to make discoveries in virology that are of fundamental and practical importance.
  • 2012: Michael Posner (Kognitionswissenschaften) – For outstanding contributions to the understanding of spatial attention and for pioneering investigations of the neural basis of cognition using non-invasive functional brain imaging methods.
  • 2010: Andre Geim (Physik) – For his experimental realization and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon.
  • 2009: Joseph Felsenstein (Evolutionsbiologie) – For revolutionizing population genetics, phylogenetic biology, and systematics by developing a sophisticated computational framework to deduce evolutionary relationships of genes and species from molecular data.
  • 2008: Thomas Eisner (Ökologie) – For pathbreaking studies of the myriad ways that organisms utilize chemistry to mediate ecological interactions and providing a foundation for the field of chemical ecology.
  • 2007: Joseph R. Ecker (Botanik, plant science) – For contributions in the areas of ethylene signal transduction and Arabidopsis genomics that have paved the way for a revolution in modern agriculture.
  • 2006: Russell F. Doolittle (Informatik, computational science) – For contributing seminal insights and methods for using computers as an aid to characterizing protein function, in comparing amino acid sequences, and for phylogenetic reconstructions.
  • 2005: Robert J. Cava (Materialwissenschaften) – For his outstanding contributions in the synthesis and characterization of many new materials that display interesting and important superconducting, dielectric, magnetic, or thermal properties.
  • 2004: Elinor Ostrom (Sozial-/Politikwissenschaften) – For her exceptional contributions to the study of social institutions, research that has greatly advanced our understanding of resource management, and the governance of local public economies.
  • 2003: David A. Freedman (Statistik) – For his profound contributions to the theory and practice of statistics, including rigorous foundations for Bayesian influence and trenchant analysis of census adjustment.
  • 2000: Donald Lynden-Bell (Astronomie/Astrophysik) – For his outstanding work in theoretical astrophysics, and especially for the originality of his contributions to our understanding of the collective dynamic effects within stellar systems.
  • 1997: Patrick Vinton Kirch (Anthropologie) – For the unique breadth of his distinguished anthropological accomplishments, spanning many Pacific islands and joining their archeology with ethnobotany, ethnobiohistory, historical linguistics, and human biology.
  • 1994: Marina Ratner (Mathematik) – For her striking proof of the Raghunathan conjectures.
  • 1991: Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. (Physik) – For developing pulsar timing experiments with exquisite accuracy to make fundamental studies of gravitation, including gravitational radiation and high-order tests of general relativity.
  • 1987: Motoo Kimura (Evolutionsbiologie) – By demonstrating the role of stochastic processes in inducing and maintaining most allelic diveristy in nature, he has unified molecular biology with evolutionary theory, thereby strengthening both fields.
  • 1984: Robert H. Burris (Agrarwissenschaften) – For his penetrating studies of the biochemistry of nitrogen fixation have enriched the agricultural sciences by deed and example.
  • 1981: Shing-Tung Yau (Mathematik)
  • 1978: John Mather (Reine Mathematik)
  • 1975: John Tuzo Wilson (Geowissenschaften)
  • 1971: James Watson (Molekularbiologie)
  • 1968: Murray Gell-Mann (Theoretische Physik)
  • 1965: Alfred Sturtevant (Biochemie)
  • 1963: Maurice Ewing (Geophysik)
  • 1961: Charles Hard Townes (Physik)
  • 1953: Vannevar Bush
  • 1950: Irving Langmuir
  • 1947: Ross Granville Harrison
  • 1945: William F. Durand
  • 1943: Edwin Grant Conklin
  • 1939: William Lawrence Bragg
  • 1936: Edmund B. Wilson
  • 1932: John J. Carty

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