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Das System der Imperial Units (Britisches Einheitensystem) oder das Imperial System (auch bekannt als British Imperial oder Exchequer Standards von 1825) ist das Einheitensystem, das erstmals im Weights and Measures Act von 1824 definiert und später präzisiert und im Umfang verringert wurde. Das Britische Einheitensystem ersetzte die Winchester Standards, die von 1588 bis 1825 galten. Dieses System war im gesamten britischen Empire gültig, bis im späten 20. Jahrhundert von den meisten Nationen des ehemaligen Empires das metrische System übernommen wurde. Gleichwohl blieben einige Einheiten des Britischen Einheitensystems inoffiziell weiter in Gebrauch. Das Britische Einheitensystem entwickelte sich aus dem Englischen Einheitensystem, wie auch das Einheitenssystem der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika.
- 1 Einführung
- 2 Implementation
- 3 Einheiten
- 4 Natural equivalents
- 5 Relation to other systems
- 6 Current use of some imperial units
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Einführung[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Implementation[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
The Weights and Measures Act of 1824 was initially scheduled to go into effect on 1 May 1825. However, the Weights and Measures Act of 1825 pushed back the date to 1 January 1826. The 1824 Act allowed the continued use of pre-imperial units provided that they were customary, widely known, and clearly marked with imperial equivalents.
Apothekereinheiten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Apothecaries' units are mentioned neither in the act of 1824 nor 1825. At the time, apothecaries' weights and measures were regulated "in England, Wales, and Berwick-upon-Tweed" by the London College of Physicians, and in Ireland by the Dublin College of Physicians. In Scotland, apothecaries' units were unofficially regulated by the Edinburgh College of Physicians. The three colleges published, at infrequent intervals, pharmacopoeiae, the London and Dublin editions having the force of law.
Imperial apothecaries' measures, based on the imperial pint of 20 fluid ounces, were introduced by the publication of the London Pharmacopoeia of 1836, the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia of 1839, and the Dublin Pharmacopoeia of 1850. The Medical Act of 1858 transferred to The Crown the right to publish the official pharmacopoeia and to regulate apothecaries' weights and measures.
Einheiten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Längen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Metric equivalents in this article usually assume the latest official definition. Before this date, the most precise measurement of the imperial Standard Yard was 398416 metres. 0,914 Vorlage:Clear
|Unit||Relative to previous||Feet||Millimetres||Metres||Notes|
|thou (th)||Vorlage:Frac||0.0254||0254 0,000||
|inch (in)||1000 thou||Vorlage:Frac||25.4||0.0254|
|foot (ft)||12 inches||1||304.8||0.3048|
|yard (yd)||3 feet||3||914.4||0.9144||
|chain (ch)||22 yards||66||116,8 20||20.1168|
|furlong (fur)||10 chains||660||201.168||
|mile (ml)||8 furlongs||5280||609,344 1||
|league (lea)||3 miles||840 15||828,032 4||
|fathom (ftm)||2.02667 yards||6.08||853,184 1||1.853184|
|nautical mile||10 cables||6080||853,184 1||
|Gunter's survey units (17th century onwards)|
|link||7.92 inches||Vorlage:Frac||201.168||168 0,201|
|rod||25 links||Vorlage:Frac||029,2 5||5.0292||
Flächen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
units of length
|Square feet||Square rods||Square miles||Square metres||Hectares||Notes|
|perch||1 rod × 1 rod||272.25||1||Vorlage:Frac||85264 25,292||529 0,002||
|rood||1 furlong × 1 rod||890 10||40||Vorlage:Frac||011,7141056 1||0.1012||
|acre||1 furlong × 1 chain||560 43||160||Vorlage:Frac||046,8564224 4||0.4047||
|Note: All equivalences are exact except hectares, which are accurate to 4 significant figures.|
Volumen[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
In 1824, the various different gallons in use in the British Empire were replaced by the imperial gallon, a unit close in volume to the ale gallon. It was originally defined as the volume of Vorlage:Convert of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the barometer standing at Vorlage:Convert at a temperature of Vorlage:Convert. In 1963, the gallon was redefined as the volume of 10 pounds of distilled water of density 859 g/mL weighed in air of density 0,998217 g/mL against weights of density 0,001, which works out to 8,136 g/mL096 l or 4,546. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 switched to a gallon of exactly 277,4198 cu in09 L (approximately 4,546). 277,4194 cu in
|Millilitres||Cubic inches||US ounces||US pints|
|fluid ounce (fl oz)||1||Vorlage:Frac||Vorlage:Convert|
|Note: The millilitre equivalences are exact, but cubic-inch and US measures are correct to 5 significant figures.|
|1/2 Pint||1/2 Pint||17.4|
|1/2 Gallon||1/4 Peck or 1/2 Gallon||138.7|
|Gallon||1/2 Peck or Gallon||277.4|
|2 Gallons (Peck)||Peck||554.8|
|4 Gallons (1/2 Bushel)||1/2 Bushel||1109.7|
British apothecaries' volume measures[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
These measurements were in use from 1826, when the new imperial gallon was defined, but were officially abolished in the United Kingdom on 1 January 1971. In the USA, though no longer recommended, the apothecaries' system is still used occasionally in medicine, especially in prescriptions for older medications.
metric value[note 1]
|minim||♏︎, , m, m., min||Vorlage:Gaps|
|fluid scruple||fl ℈, fl s||20 minims||Vorlage:Gaps|
(fluid dram, fluidram)
|ʒ, fl ʒ, fʒ, ƒ 3, fl dr||3 fluid scruples||6328125 ml 3,551|
|fluid ounce||℥, fl ℥, f℥, ƒ ℥, fl oz||8 fluid drachms||0625 ml 28,413|
|pint||O, pt||20 fluid ounces||25 ml 568,261|
|gallon||C, gal||8 pints||Vorlage:Gaps|
Massen und Gewichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the UK used three different systems for mass and weight:
- troy weight, used for precious metals;
- avoirdupois weight, used for most other purposes; and
- apothecaries' weight, now virtually unused since the metric system is used for all scientific purposes.
The troy pound (7216 g) was made the primary unit of mass by the 1824 Act; however, its use was abolished in the UK on 1 January 1879, 373,241 with only the troy ounce (4768 g) and its 31,103decimal subdivisions retained. The Weights and Measures Act 1855 (18 & 19 Victoria C72) made the avoirdupois pound the primary unit of mass. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, and all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it.
|grain (gr)||Vorlage:Frac||79891 0,064||Exactly 91 milligrams. 64,798|
|drachm (dr)||Vorlage:Frac||8451953125 1,771|
|ounce (oz)||Vorlage:Frac||523125 28,349|
|pound (lb)||1||37 453,592||59237 0,453||Exactly 37 grams by definition. 453,592|
|stone (st)||14||350,29318 6||29318 6,350||The plural stone is often used when providing a weight (e.g. "this sack weighs 8 stone"). A person's weight is often quoted in stones and pounds in English-speaking countries that use the avoirdupois system, with the exception of the United States and Canada, where it is usually quoted in pounds.|
|quarter (qr or qtr)||28||58636 12,700||One quarter is equal to two stones or a quarter of a hundredweight. The term quarter was also commonly used to refer to a quarter of a pound in a retail context.|
|hundredweight (cwt)||112||34544 50,802||One imperial hundredweight is equal to eight stones. This is the long hundredweight as opposed to the short hundredweight of 100 pounds as used in the United States and Canada.|
|ton (t)||2240||016,0469088 1||As with the US and Canadian systems, twenty hundredweights equal a ton. The imperial hundredweight is 12% greater than the US and Canadian equivalent. The imperial ton (or long ton) is pounds, which is much closer to a metric 2240tonne (about 204,6 pounds), compared to the short ton of 2Vorlage:Convert.|
|slug (slug)||04856 32,174||593,90294 14||90294 14,593||The slug, a unit associated with imperial and US customary systems, is a mass that accelerates by 1 ft/s2 when a force of one pound (lbf) is exerted on it.|
Natural equivalents[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Although the 1824 act defined the yard and pound by reference to the prototype standards, it also defined the values of certain physical constants, to make provision for re-creation of the standards if they were to be damaged. For the yard, the length of a pendulum beating seconds at the latitude of Greenwich at Mean Sea Level in vacuo was defined as 93 inches. For the pound, the mass of a cubic inch of distilled water at an 39,013atmospheric pressure of 30 inches of mercury and a temperature of 62° Fahrenheit was defined as 252.458 grains, with there being 7,000 grains per pound. However, following the destruction of the original prototypes in the 1834 Houses of Parliament fire, it proved impossible to recreate the standards from these definitions, and a new Weights and Measures Act (18 & 19 Victoria. Cap. 72) was passed in 1855 which permitted the recreation of the prototypes from recognized secondary standards.
Relation to other systems[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
The imperial system is one of many systems of English units. Although most of the units are defined in more than one system, some subsidiary units were used to a much greater extent, or for different purposes, in one area rather than the other. The distinctions between these systems are often not drawn precisely.
One such distinction is that between these systems and older British/English units/systems or newer additions. The term imperial should not be applied to English units that were outlawed in the Weights and Measures Act 1824 or earlier, or which had fallen out of use by that time, nor to post-imperial inventions, such as the slug or poundal.
The US customary system is historically derived from the English units that were in use at the time of settlement. Because the United States was already independent at the time, these units were unaffected by the introduction of the imperial system.
Current use of some imperial units[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
United Kingdom[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
British law now defines each imperial unit in terms of the metric equivalent. The metric system is in official use within the United Kingdom for most applications. However, use of imperial units is widespread amongst the public, and all UK roads use the imperial system except for tonnage and newer height or width restriction signs. As from March 2015, new height and width restriction signs should use both imperial and metric measurements, some signs having previously used only imperial or only metric measurements.
The Units of Measurement Regulations 1995 require that all measuring devices used in trade or retail shall display measurements in metric quantities. This has been proven in court against the so-called "Metric Martyrs", a group of market traders who insisted on trading in imperial units only. Contrary to the impression given by some press reports, these regulations do not currently place any obstacle in the way of using imperial units alongside metric units. Almost all traders in the UK will accept requests from customers specified in imperial units, and scales which display in both unit systems are commonplace in the retail trade. Metric price signs may be accompanied by imperial price signs (known as "supplementary indicators") provided that the imperial signs are no larger and no more prominent than the official metric ones. The EU units of measurement directive (directive 80/181/EEC) had previously permitted the use of supplementary indicators (imperial measurements) until 31 December 2009, but a revision of the directive published on 11 March 2009 permitted their use indefinitely.
The United Kingdom completed its legal partial transition to the metric system (sometimes referred to as "SI" from the French Système International d'Unités) in 1995, with some imperial units still legally mandated for certain applications: draught beer and cider must be sold in pints, road-sign distances must be in miles and/or yards, length and width (but not weight) restrictions must be in feet and inches on road signs (although an equivalent in metres may be shown as well), and road speed limits must be in miles per hour, therefore instruments in vehicles sold in the UK must be capable of displaying miles per hour. Visiting foreign vehicles, such as all post-2005 Irish vehicles, may legally have instruments displayed only in kilometres per hour unless they are permanently imported into the UK, at which point the instrumentation must be converted to MPH by law. Even though the troy pound was outlawed in the UK in the Weights and Measures Act of 1878, the troy ounce may still be used for the weights of precious stones and metals. The original railways (many built in the Victorian era) are a big user of imperial units, with distances officially measured in miles and yards or miles and chains, and also feet and inches, and speeds are in miles per hour, although many modern metro and tram systems are entirely metric, and London Underground uses metric. Metric is also used for the Channel Tunnel and on High Speed 1. Adjacent to Ashford International railway station and Dollands Moor Freight Yard, railway speeds are given in both metric and imperial units.
Most British people still use imperial units in everyday life for distance (miles, yards, feet and inches), body weight (stones and pounds for adults, pounds and ounces for babies though use of kilograms is increasing) and volume in some cases (especially milk and beer in pints) but rarely for canned or bottled soft drinks or petrol. The height of horses in some English-speaking countries, including Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States is usually measured in hands, standardized to 4 inches (101.6 mm). Regardless of how people measure their weight or height, these must be recorded in metric officially, for example in medical records. Fuel consumption for vehicles is often discussed in miles per gallon, though official figures always include litres per 100 km equivalents. When sold draught in licensed premises, beer and cider must be measured out and sold in pints and half-pints. Cow's milk is available in both litre- and pint-based containers in supermarkets and shops. Areas of land associated with farming, forestry and real estate are often advertised measured in acres and square feet, but for official government purposes the units are always hectares and square metres.
Office space and industrial units are usually advertised in square feet, despite carpet and flooring products being sold in square metres with equivalents in square yards. Steel pipe sizes are sold in increments of inches, while copper pipe is sold in increments of millimetres. Road bicycles have their frames measured in centimetres, while off-road bicycles have their frames measured in inches due to US influence in that market. The size (diagonal) of television and computer monitor screens is always denominated in inches. Food sold by length or width e.g. pizzas or sandwiches, is generally sold in inches. Clothing is always sized in inches, with the metric equivalent often shown as a small supplementary indicator. Gas is usually measured by the cubic foot or cubic metre, but is billed like electricity by the kilowatt-hour.
Some pre-packaged products show both metric and imperial measures e.g. Thorntons chocolates however it is also common to see imperial pack sizes with metric only labels e.g. a 1 lb (i.e., 454 g) tin of Lyle's Golden Syrup is always labelled 454 g with no imperial indicator. Similarly most jars of jam and packs of sausages are labelled 454 g with no imperial indicator.
India[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
India's conversion to the metric system from the imperial system occurred in stages between 1955 and 1962. The metric system in weights and measures was adopted by the Indian Parliament in December 1956 with the Standards of Weights and Measures Act, which took effect beginning 1 October 1958. The Indian Coinage Act was passed in 1955 by the Government of India to introduce decimal coinage in the country. The new system of coins became legal tender on April 1957, where the rupee consists of 100 paise. For the next five years, both the old and new systems were legal. In April 1962, all other systems were banned. This process of metrication is called "big-bang" route, which is to simultaneously outlaw the use of pre-metric measurement, metricise, reissue all government publications and laws, and change education systems to metric.
Today all official measurements are made in the metric system. However, in common usage some older Indians may still refer to imperial units. Some measurements, such as the heights of mountains, are still recorded in feet. Additionally, the Indian numbering system of crores and lacs is used alongside otherwise metricated currency units, while tyre rim diameters are still measured in inches, as used worldwide. Road widths are popularly measured in feet but official documents use metres. Body temperature is still sometimes measured in degrees Fahrenheit. Industries like the construction and the real estate industry still use both the metric and the imperial system though it is more common for sizes of homes to be given in square feet and land in acres. Bulk cotton is sold by the candy (0.35 imperial tons, or 355.62 kg) or the bale (170 kg).
In Standard Indian English, as in Australian, Singaporean, and British English, metric units such as the litre (liter), metre (meter), and metric tonne (ton) utilise the traditional spellings brought over from French, which differ from those used in the United States and the Philippines. The imperial long ton is invariably spelt with one 'n'. (See English in the Commonwealth of Nations for more information).
Hong Kong[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
- The Chinese units of measurement of the Qing Empire (no longer in widespread use in mainland China);
- British imperial units; and
- The metric System.
In 1976 the Hong Kong Government started the conversion to the metric system, and as of 2012 measurements for government purposes, such as road signs, are almost always in metric units. However, all three systems are officially permitted for trade, and in the wider society a mixture of all three systems prevails.
The Chinese system's most commonly used units for length are 里 (li), 丈 (tseung/cheung), 尺 (tsek/chek), 寸 (tsun/chun), 分 (fen/fan) in descending scale order. These units are now rarely used in daily life, the imperial and metric systems being preferred. The imperial equivalents are written with the same basic Chinese characters as the Chinese system. In order to distinguish between the units of the two systems, the units can be prefixed with "Ying" (chinesisch 英) for the Imperial system and "Wa" (chinesisch 華) for the Chinese system. In writing, derived characters are often used, with an additional 口 (mouth) radical to the left of the original Chinese character, for writing imperial units. The most commonly used units are the mile or "li" (chinesisch 哩), the yard or "ma" (chinesisch 碼), the foot or "chek" (chinesisch 呎), and the inch or "tsun" (chinesisch 吋).
The traditional measure of flat area is the square foot (chinesisch 方呎, 平方呎) of the imperial system, which is still in common use for real estate purposes. The measurement of agricultural plots and fields, however, is traditionally conducted in 畝 (mau) of the Chinese system.
For the measurement of volume, Hong Kong officially uses the metric system, though the gallon (加侖, ka-lun) is also occasionally used.
Canada[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
During the 1970s, the metric system and SI units were introduced in Canada to replace the imperial system. Within the government, efforts to implement the metric system were extensive; almost any agency, institution, or function provided by the government uses SI units exclusively. Imperial units were eliminated from all road signs, although both systems of measurement will still be found on privately owned signs, such as the height warnings at the entrance of a parkade. In the 1980s, momentum to fully convert to the metric system stalled when the government of Brian Mulroney was elected. There was heavy opposition to metrication and as a compromise the government maintains legal definitions for and allows use of imperial units as long as metric units are shown as well. The law requires that measured products (such as fuel and meat) be priced in metric units, although an imperial price can be shown if a metric price is present. However, there tends to be leniency in regards to fruits and vegetables being priced in imperial units only. Environment Canada still offers an imperial unit option beside metric units, even though weather is typically measured and reported in metric units in the Canadian media. However, some radio stations near the United States border (such as CIMX and CIDR) primarily use imperial units to report the weather. Railways in Canada also continue to use Imperial units.
Imperial units are still used in ordinary conversation. Today, Canadians typically use a mix of metric and imperial measurements in their daily lives. However, the use of the metric and imperial systems varies by age. The older generation mostly uses the imperial system, while the younger generation more often uses the metric system. Newborns are measured in SI at hospitals, but the birth weight and length is also announced to family and friends in imperial units. Drivers' licences use SI units. In livestock auction markets, cattle are sold in dollars per hundredweight (short), whereas hogs are sold in dollars per hundred kilograms. Imperial units still dominate in recipes, construction, house renovation and gardening. Land is now surveyed and registered in metric units, although initial surveys used imperial units. For example, partitioning of farm land on the prairies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was done in imperial units; this accounts for imperial units of distance and area retaining wide use in the Prairie Provinces. The size of most apartments, condominiums and houses continues to be described in square feet rather than square metres, and carpet or flooring tile is purchased by the square foot. Motor-vehicle fuel consumption is reported in both litres per 100 km and statute miles per imperial gallon, leading to the erroneous impression that Canadian vehicles are 20% more fuel-efficient than their apparently identical American counterparts for which fuel economy is reported in statute miles per US gallon (neither country specifies which gallon is used). Canadian railways maintain exclusive use of imperial measurements to describe train length (feet), train height (feet), capacity (tons), speed (mph), and trackage (miles).
Imperial units also retain common use in firearms and ammunition. Imperial measures are still used in the description of cartridge types, even when the cartridge is of relatively recent invention (e.g., .204 Ruger, .17 HMR, where the calibre is expressed in decimal fractions of an inch). However, ammunition that is already classified in metric is still kept metric (e.g., 9×19mm). In the manufacture of ammunition, bullet and powder weights are expressed in terms of grains for both metric and imperial cartridges.
As in most of the western world, air navigation is based on nautical units, e.g., the nautical mile, which is neither imperial nor metric, though altitude is still measured in imperial feet in keeping with the international standard.
Australia[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Metrication in Australia has largely ended the use of imperial units, though for particular measurements (such as flight altitudesVorlage:Citation needed and nominal sizes of computer and television screens) international usage of imperial units is still followed. In licensed venues, draught beer and cider is sold in glasses and jugs with sizes based on the imperial fluid ounce though rounded to the nearest 5 ml.
New Zealand[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Although New Zealand completed metrication in the 1970s, a study of university students undertaken in 1992 found a continued use of imperial units for birth weight and human height alongside metric units.
The aviation industry is one of the last major users of the old imperial system: Altitude and airport elevation are measured in feet. Navigation is done in nautical miles; all other aspects (fuel quantity, aircraft weight, runway length, etc.) use metric.
Ireland[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Ireland has officially changed over to the metric system since entering the European Union, with distances on new road signs being metric since 1997 and speed limits being metric since 2005. The imperial system remains in limited use – for sales of beer in pubs (traditionally sold by the pint). All other goods are required by law to be sold in metric units, although old quantities are retained for some goods like butter and sausages, which are sold in 454-gram (1 lb) packaging. The majority of cars sold pre-2005 feature speedometers with miles per hour as the primary unit, but with a kilometres per hour display as well.
Other countries[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Some imperial measurements remain in limited use in Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and South Africa. Measurements in feet and inches, especially for a person's height, are frequently encountered in conversation and non-governmental publications.
Prior to metrication, it was a common practice in Malaysia for people to refer to unnamed locations and small settlements along major roads by referring to how many miles the said locations were located from the nearest major town. In some cases, these eventually became the official names of the locations; in other cases, such names have been largely or completely superseded by new names. An example of the former is Batu 32 (literally "Mile 32" in Malay), which refers to the area surrounding the intersection between Federal Route 22 (the Tamparuli-Sandakan highway) and Federal Route 13 (the Sandakan-Tawau highway). The area is so named because it is 32 miles west of Sandakan, the nearest major town.
Petrol is still sold by the imperial gallon in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Myanmar, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The United Arab Emirates Cabinet in 2009 issued the Decree No. (270 / 3) specifying that, from 1 January 2010, the new unit sale price for petrol will be the litre and not the gallon. This in line with the UAE Cabinet Decision No. 31 of 2006 on the national system of measurement, which mandates the use of International System of units as a basis for the legal units of measurement in the country. Sierra Leone switched to selling fuel by the litre in May 2011.
In October 2011, the Antigua and Barbuda government announced the re-launch of the Metrication Programme in accordance with the Metrology Act 2007, which established the International System of Units as the legal system of units. The Antigua and Barbuda government has committed to a full conversion from the imperial system by the first quarter of 2015.
See also[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Notes[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
References[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
- Appendices B and C of NIST Handbook 44
- A. Thompson, Barry N. Taylor: The NIST guide for the use of the international system of units. NIST. 5 October 2010. Abgerufen im 15 October 2012.
- 6 George IV chapter 12, 1825 (statute)
- British Weights And Measures Association
- Canada Weights and Measures Act 1970-71-72
- General table of units of measure – NIST – pdf
- How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement
- Vorlage:UK SI
- Britannica Educational Publishing: The Britannica Guide to Numbers and Measurement. The Rosen Publishing Group, 1 August 2010, ISBN 978-1-61530-218-5, S. 241 (Abgerufen am 14 September 2017).
- Chaney, Henry James: A Practical Treatise on the Standard Weights and Measures in Use in the British Empire with some account of the metric system. Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1897, S. 3 (Abgerufen am 11 September 2016).
- Great Britain: The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1807-1865). His Majesty's statute and law printers, 1824, S. 339–354 (Abgerufen am 31 December 2011).
- A collection of statutes connected with the general administration of the law: arranged according to the order of subjects. W. H. Bond, 1836, S. 306–27 (Abgerufen am 31 December 2011).
- Edinburgh medical and surgical journal. A. and C. Black, 1824, S. 398 (Abgerufen am 29 July 2012).
- , James Goddard Butler, William (barrister.) BallThe Statutes at Large, Passed in the Parliaments Held in Ireland: From the twenty-third year of George the Second, A.D. 1749, to the first year of George the Third, A.D. 1761 inclusive. Boulter Grierson, 1765, S. 852 (Abgerufen am 29 July 2012).
- Samuel Frederick Gray: A supplement to the Pharmacopœia and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts : together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ .... Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836, S. 516 (Abgerufen am 29 July 2012).
- A Translation of the Pharmacopoeia of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 1836.: With ....
- The Pharmacopoeia of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Adam and Charles Black and Bell and Bradfute, 1839, S. xiii–xiv (Abgerufen am 29 July 2012).
- The pharmacopœia of the King and queen's college of physicians in Ireland. Hodges and Smith, 1850, S. xxii (Abgerufen am 29 July 2012).
- Great Britain: A collection of the public general statutes passed in the ... year of the reign of .... Printed by G. W. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode, Printers to the Queen, 1858, S. 306 (Abgerufen am 29 July 2012).
- Sears et al. 1928. Phil Trans A, 227:281.
- Mil at How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement by Russ Rowlett
- The exact figure was 6.08 feet, but 6 feet was in use in practice. The commonly accepted definition of a fathom was always 6 feet. The conflict was inconsequential, as Admiralty nautical charts designated depths shallower than 5 fathoms in feet on older imperial charts. Today, all charts worldwide are metric, except for USA Hydrographic Office charts, which use feet for all depth ranges.
- The nautical mile was not readily expressible in terms of any of the intermediate units, because it was derived from the circumference of the Earth (like the original metre).
- Appendix C: General Tables of Units of Measurements (PDF) NIST. Archiviert vom Original am 26 November 2006. Abgerufen im 4 January 2007.
- imperial gallon.
- Carl Ricketts: Marks and Marking of Weights and Measures of the British Isles. Devon Design and Print, Taunton, Somerset 1996, ISBN 0952853302, S. 94 (Abgerufen am 13 September 2016).
- The Weights and Measures (Equivalents for dealings with drugs) Regulations 1970.
- Museum of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, Information Sheet: 11.
- Lorraine C. Zentz: Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Math — Apothecary System. In: Math for Pharmacy Technicians. Jones & Bartlett Learning, Sudbury, MA 2010, ISBN 978-0-7637-5961-2, S. 7–8, OCLC 421360709 (Abgerufen am 6 July 2012).
- Mary Jo Boyer: UNIT 2 Measurement Systems: The Apothecary System. In: Math for Nurses: A Pocket Guide to Dosage Calculation and Drug Preparation, 7th. Auflage, Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA 2009, ISBN 978-0-7817-6335-6, S. 108–9, OCLC 181600928 (Abgerufen am 6 July 2012).
- The distinction between mass and weight is not always clearly drawn. In certain contexts, the term pound may refer to a unit of force rather than mass.
- Great Britain: Statutes at large ... 1878, S. 308 (Abgerufen am 12 September 2012).
- Hugh Chisholm: The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. At the University Press, 1911, S. 480 (Abgerufen am 12 September 2012).
- Great Britain: A collection of public general statutes passed in the 18th and 19th years of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria 1855, S. 273–75 (Abgerufen am 5 January 2012).
- Definition of stone in English from the Oxford dictionary. Oxford University Press. Abgerufen am 25. November 2015.
- Weights and Measures Act
- Wolfram-Alpha: Computational Knowledge Engine.
- Jon Kelly: Will British people ever think in metric?, BBC. 21 December 2011. Abgerufen im 26 February 2017. „...but today the British remain unique in Europe by holding onto imperial weights and measures. ...the persistent British preference for imperial over metric is particularly noteworthy...“
- Height and width road signs to display metric and imperial, BBC. 8 November 2014. Abgerufen im 26 February 2017. „New road signs showing height and width restrictions will use both metric and imperial measurements from March 2015....Road signs for bridges, tunnels and narrow roads can currently show measurements in just feet and inches or only metres. Some already display both.“
- The Council of the European Communities: Council Directive 80/181/EEC of 20 December 1979 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to Unit of measurement and on the repeal of Directive 71/354/EEC. 27 May 2009. Abgerufen im 13 September 2011.
- BusinessLink: Weights and measures: Rules for pubs, restaurants and cafes (online) Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. Archiviert vom Original am 20. Juli 2011. Abgerufen im 24 August 2009.
- Department for Transport statement on metric road signs (online) BWMA. 12 July 2002. Abgerufen im 24 August 2009.
- Facts & Figures. Transport for London. Abgerufen im 31 January 2016.
- BMI healthy weight calculator. National Health Service. Abgerufen im 25 November 2015.
- In praise of ... metric measurements. In: The Guardian, 1 December 2006. Abgerufen im 5 May 2010.
- Government website
- Acharya, Anil Kumar. History of Decimalisation Movement in India, Auto-Print & Publicity House, 1958.
- CAP 68 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ORDINANCE Sched 2 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT AND PERMITTED SYMBOLS OR ABBREVIATIONS OF UNITS OF MEASUREMENT LAWFUL FOR USE FOR TRADE.
- Weights and Measures Act: Canadian units of measure. Justice Canada. Archiviert vom Original am 5 June 2011. Abgerufen im 14 November 2007.
- Guide to Food Labelling and Advertising. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Archiviert vom Original am 24 January 2008. Abgerufen im 1 December 2007.
- Consumer Packaging and Labelling Regulations (C.R.C., c. 417). Justice Canada, Legislative Services Branch. Abgerufen im 15 November 2012.
- A Canadian compromise. CBC. Abgerufen im 11 March 2008.
- Les livres et les pieds, toujours présents (eng:The pounds and feet, always present) (French) 5 sur 5, Société Radio-Canada. Abgerufen im 11 March 2008.
- BRITISHWEIGHTS AND MEASURES ASSOCIATION.
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- Home Hardware - Building Supplies - Building Materials - Fence Products.
- Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada: Fuel Consumption Ratings Search Tool - Conventional Vehicles.
- Government of Canada, Transportation Safety Board of Canada: Railway Investigation Report R96W0171.
- Canadian Aviation Regulations, Langley Flying School. Canadian Airport Organization, Runways and Taxiways, Mandatory Instruction Signs, Manoeuvring Area, Windsocks, Airport Circuit Organization in Canada, Uncontrolled Airports, Rules for Joining the Circuit in Canada, Airports with Mandatory Radio Frequency, Controlled Airports in Canada, ATC clearances and instructions, Canadian Airspace Organization, Canadian Class C Airspace, Canadian Class D Airspace, Restricted Airspace in Canada, Airway organization in Canada, VHF Airways, Control Zones in Canada, VFR Weather Minimum in Canada, Special VFR Clearances in Canada, VFR Over-the-top, Aircraft cruising altitude rules in Canada, Altimeter Rules in Canada, VFR Flight Plans in Canada, NOTAMs in Canada, National Security rules for aircraft in Canada, Emergency Locator Transmitters, Priority Aircraft Radio Communications in Canada, Transponder Requirements in Canada, Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Canada, Aircraft Passenger Briefings in Canada, Pilot Privileges in Canada, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, Aircraft Jet Blast Hazard, Aircraft passenger seat requirements in Canada, Aircraft Oxygen requirements in Canada, Aircraft Documents required in Canada, Aircraft Equipment requirements in Canada, Aircraft Icing, Minimum flight altitude in Canada, Rules of the Air in Canada,.
- "Human use of metric measures of length" Bitte entweder wayback- oder webciteID- oder archive-is- oder archiv-url-Parameter angeben. Dignan, J. R. E., & O'Shea, R. P. (1995). New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 24, 21–25.
- The Government of Grenada – The Ministry of Agriculture. Archiviert vom Original am 24 March 2008. Abgerufen im 15 January 2008: „he price of gasoline at the pumps was fixed at EC$7.50 per imperial gallon...“, Belize Ministry of Finance::FAQ. Belize Ministry of Finance. Abgerufen im 15 January 2008: „#Kerosene per US Gallon (per Imperial gallon)#Gasoline (Regular)(per imperial Gallon)# Gasoline (Premium) (per Imperial Gallon)#Diesel (per Imperial Gallon)“ (Seite nicht mehr abrufbar)
- The High Commission Antigua and Barbuda. Archiviert vom Original am 31 January 2009. Abgerufen im 15 January 2008., FuelPrices2005 (PDF) German Technical Cooperation. Abgerufen im 15 January 2008. (Seite nicht mehr abrufbar)
- Sierra Leone Embassy to the United States INTRODUCTION OF THE METRIC SYSTEM AND THE PRICE OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Minister Lovell Addresses Metric Conversions. In: CARIBARENA Antigua, 18 October 2011. Archiviert vom Original am 20 October 2011. Abgerufen im 23 October 2011.
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